Johnston, Mary: To Have and To Hold
(researched by Ilanna Padden)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Mary Johnston, To have and to Hold. Boston and New York/ Cambridge: Houghton, Mifflin and Company/The Riverside Press, 1900. Copyright Statements: 1899 Mary Johnston 1900 Mary Johnston 1900 Houghton, Mifflin and Company. London edition (A. Constable nd Co.) has title: by order of the company.

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

First American edition published in trade cloth binding.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

207 leaves, pp.[2], [i-v]vi[1] 2-6, 7-8[9]10-14, 15-17[18]19- 22, 23-26[27]28-30, 31-38, [39]40-46, [47]48-54, 55-56[57] 58-62, 63-66[67]68-70, 71-77[78], 79-82, 83-86, 87-91[92] 93-94, 95-99[100]101-102, 103-110, [111]112-117[118], 119- 125[126], 127-132[133]134, 135-141[142], 143-146, 147-148, 149-150, 151[152]153-158, 159-163[164]165-166, 167-173[174], 175-182, [183]184, 185-188, 189-190, 191-192[193]194-198, 199-201[202]203-206, 207-212[213]214, 215-216, 217-220, 221- 222, 223[224]225-230, 231-233[234]235-238, 239-243[244]245- 246, 247-248, 249-250, 251[252], 253-254, 255-262, 263[264] 265-270, 271-274[275]276-278, 279-286, 287-288[289]290-294, 295-298[299]300-302, 303-310, 311-312[313]314-318, 319-325 [326], 327-334, 335-337[338]339-342, 343-346[347]348-350, 351-357[358], 359-366, 367-368[369]370-374, 375-377[378] 379-382, 383-387[388]389-390, 391-398, 399-403[3] *Most of the pages are printed quarto style (8 pages are connected together) and the commas seperate each quarto. (Some of the leaves pages were single leaves and are seperate by commas as well).

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

Includes publisher advertisement for other books by Mary Johnston on the first leave. Not edited or introduced.

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Black and white plates on glossy paper are located throughout the text. The quote that the secne is depicting is located underneath-center the illustration. The illustrations are not numbered and do not count in the pagination of the book (they are inserted). A List of illustrations is located in the front plates. The page number listed for the illustrations denotes the page of text it is next to. For example the illustration numbered p.82 is refferring to the tet page 82. All illustartions face the title page. Illustrated by Howard Pyle, E.B. Thompson, A.W. Betts, and Emeln Connell.

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

83R Book size: 198mm by 125mm Text size: 142mm by 83mm Book is in overall good condition. The cover is in a solid reddish color with no stamping. There is a label on the top of the spine lisitng the author and title in a reddish ink. The only decoration provided on the cover is flower design at the top and bottom of the label. The illustrations inside the book make the book very attractive. The plates are 20 cm on smooth glossy paper with a caption in smaller type underneath. The wide margins make the book easy to read. The text is a medium size also making the book easily readible. The pages are pretty worn but only on the edges.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The book consists of three diiferent kinds of paper: The first are the end papers on a thick cream colored stock. Next the illustrations are all done on smooth glossy stock, and lastly all the text is printed on (wove) paper of a cream color. There is some wear on the text pages, some of the edges are frayed and browning. The majority of the pages have straight edges but some of the pages have ripply edges. Overall the paper is in good condition.

11 Description of binding(s)

Trade cloth binding, dotted line grain in a moderate reddish color. There is no dust jacket. The cover is completely plain except for a cream color label at the top of the spine listing publication information in reddish ink. The inside of the cover is lined with paper and there are end papers used, 2 at the beginning, and 1 at the end of the novel. The end papers are on thick, cream colored stock. Transcription of Spine: To Have| & | To Hold | By Mary | Johnston | First edition

12 Transcription of title page


13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

Information on holdings not available at this time.

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

Dedicated "To the memory of my mother" (dedication located after the title page) Frontispiece: smooth glossy stock with an illustration of a duel scene on black/white plate. Captioned "Why don't you end it?" p. 209 There is a protective tissue paper like sheet inserted to cover the illustration.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

1899:Boston, Houghton 1901: no significant changes 1902: Dust jacket included 1931: Personal author and illustrator Frank E. Schoonover 1931: 331p. 1934: The Riverside Literature Series with introduction notes and suggestions by Grace Shoup. 1959: 331p. Personal author and illustrator Frank E. Schoonver 1959: 372p. 1970: American Printing House for the Blind (braille) 1997: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Electronic Edition 2001: Classic Books: Reprint. Best Sellers of 1900 Series (paperback)

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

Three printings of first edition noted (National Union Catalog)

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

1899: Grosset 1900: Grosset and Dunlop 1900: Grosset and Dunlop with scenes from Photoplay 1933: Webster: The Everyreader Series 1946: Pocket Books 1953: Webster: The Everyreader Series 1959: Pocket Books: Cardinal Edition 1966: Pocket Books 1968: Airmont Pub. Co. (with an introduction by Francis R. Gemme)

6 Last date in print?

Still in print as of April 2001.

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

Exact figures not found but estimate information can be retrieved from advertising copies: Total sales reached above 250,000 as of September 15, 1900(New York Times). The book no longer received ads in the New York Times Book Review or Publisher' Weekly after September.

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

Exact figures not found but estimate information retrieved from advertisement copies: New York Times Book Review: March 3: 75,000 copies sold *Three weeks: March 10: 100,000 *Four weeks: March 17: 125,000 *Five weeks: March 24: 135,000 *Six weeks: March 31: 150,000 *Seven weeks: April 7: 165,000: *Nine weeks: April 21: 185,000 *Ten weeks: April 28: 200,000 May 26: 220,000 ( a later ad on June 23 proclaimed it 220,000 in twelve weeks) August 4: 245,000 September 15: 250,000 Publishers' Weekly: 150,000 at six weeks and one week sales of 64,000. (An article in Literary and Trade Notes Section on March 31, 1900) Publishers' Weekly: #1 bestselling book in April(June 2, 1900) #1 bestselling book in June (August 4, 1900) #2 bestselling book in July (September 8, 1900)

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Advertisements appeared in the New York Times Book Review: Saturday Review of Books and Art on: February 3, 1900 February 10, 1900 February 17, 1900 February 24, 1900 March 3, 1900 March 10, 1900 March 17, 1900 March 24, 1900 March 31, 1900 April 7, 1900 April 14, 1900 April 21, 1900 April 28, 1900 May 5, 1900 May 19, 1900 May 26, 1900 June 9, 1900 June 23, 1900 July 14, 1900 July 21, 1900 August 4, 1900 September 15, 1900 Advertisements appeared in Publishers' Weekly on: February 3, 1900 March 3, 1900 Marhc 17, 1900 March 31, 1900 May 26, 1900 September 1, 1900 (almost all of these advertisments were half-full page) Example Ad From February 3, 1900 Publishers' Weekly: HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & COMPANY| take great pleasure in announcing that on February 17 will appear| Miss MARY JOHNSTON'S Great Novel}To Have and to Hold|With 8 Illustrations by HOWARD PYLE and Others|Crown 8v0, $1.50|description of her great novel "Miss Johnston's mastery of the events and the |spirit of the time is astonishingly strong and firm; and her style had an assured|force and repose which lend a peculiar attraction to the marvellous tale.|

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

Full page devoted to Mary Johnston in Publishers' Weekly under Houghton, Mifflin and Co.'s Bulletin of the New Books and New Editions on March 17, 1900. Mary Johnston was included in Pulishers' Weekly "Notes on Authors" section on April 14, 1900. To Have and to Hold was included as major subject in local bookstore's advertisements for bargain books. Seen in New York Times Book Review (February 17 and March 3, 1900).

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

"To Have and to Hold": a musical drama of early Jamestown presented by the Tabacco Festival, Inc. and Richmond Opera Group, Inc. Perfromed at the Mosque October 5 and 6, 1955 in Richmond, Virginia. Apdated from Mary Johnston's novel. 1916 Black and white silent movie (USA) directed by George Melford 1922 Black and white silent movie directed by George Fitzmaurice. Adaptation by Ouida Bergere Boddington, Ernest F. To Have and to Hold: a dramatized version of Mary Johnston's novel of the same name: in four acts.

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Portuguese: Para ler e reter: romance norte-americano do tempo colonial. H. Garnier, 1911. 2v.(276, 281p.) Arabic: Qalb i wa-sayf i. Baghd ad: Ma.tba'at al-Ma' arif, 1966. (403p.) German: De gekochte bruid. Antwerpen, Vantuyl, 1958.

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A

Serialiization in the Atlantic Monthly

15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A


Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Mary Johnston was born on November 21, 1870 in Buchanan Virginia. Both her parents were of Scottish or Scotch-Irish ancestry. Her father Major John Williams Johnston served in the civil war under his cousin General Joseph E. Johnston. Later in his life he served as a lawyer, state legislator and railroad president (Dictionary of Literary Biography). Her mother was Elizabeth Alexander Johnston. Mary Johnston was the oldest out of six children, four girls and two boys. The education she received was mainly outside of the classroom, consisting of tutors and extensive reading. She attended a school in Atlanta for period of time but it was cut short due to illness (Dictionary of Literary Biography). Johnston and her family tended to move around fairly frequently. At the age of sixteen Johnston moved with her family to Birmingham because her father's job. After her mother's death in 1889 she accompanied her father on a trip to Europe. In 1892 the family moved to New York, and it was in New York that her writing career started to develop. Mary and her family lived in New York from 1892-1896. Finished in 1898 Prisoners of Hope was Mary Johnston's first novel and was mainly written in the confines of Central Park. The family was under financial strain and Prisoner's of Hope was written to help the family's financial situation. In effect Prisoner's of Hope was a great success with total sales reaching more than 70,000 copies (Publishers' Weekly). Prisoner's of Hope was the first of fifteen novels written by Johnston that deal with the history of Virginia. She wrote about Virginia because "it was what she knew best" and the "focus of her interest" (Dictionary of Literary Biography). A big influence fro Mary's writing came from the works of Sir Walter Scoot and Charlotte M. Yonge. In 1896 Johnston moved once again and returned to Birmingham. In 1900 Houghton, Mifflin & Company published Johnston's To Have and to Hold a novel about the "wives of Jamestown" (Dictionary of Literary Biography). This book, like Prisoner's of Hope had great success among the public. In fact it greatly surpassed Prisoner's of Hope in sales, selling 64,000 copies in just one week. She continued on to write many more novels about Virginian History. Audrey of 1902 serialized in the Atlantic Monthly dealt with colonial Virginia Theater. Next was Sir Mortimer in 1904 serialized in Harper's Magazine and Lewis Rand in 1908 dealing with Jefferson's Monticello. "Her largest achievement" was claimed to be the two books on the civil war: The Long Roll from 1911 and Cease Firing from 1912 (Dictionary of Literary Biography). Hagar of 1913 was a novel about feminism. Her publisher Houghton, Mifflin & Company paid Johnston a $10,000 dollar advance on each of her novels from Lewis Rand ? Hagar. The two following novels The Witch and The Wanderers were cut to a $50,000 advance and finally after The Wanderers she left Houghton, Mifflin & Company for Harper and Brothers. The public did not receive her novels Foes from 1918 and Michael Forth of 1919 well and Johnston started to lose her popularity. In fact Sweet Rocket of 1920 "was a disastrous failure commercially" (Dictionary of Literary Biography). Her agent Carl Brandt was very eager to make Johnston popular once again. Johnston continued on to write nine more novels but none of them received the level of public popularity as either Prisoner's of Hope or To Have and to Hold. Johnston wrote a total of about twenty-three novels Drury Randall in 1935. Mary Johnston died on May 9, 1936 from cancer at the house her family built Three Springs near Warm Springs Virginia.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Once Mary Johnston's "To Have and to Hold" began serialization in the Atlantic Monthly the demand for the magazine grew very large. The success of her previous novel "Prisoners of Hope" mixed with the success of the Atlantic Monthly story brought the public to anticipate the publication of "To Have and to Hold" in full. Sales for "To Have and to Hold" were anticipated to be greater than those of "Prisoners of Hope." Compared to her earlier works "To Have and to Hold" was believed to bring an "immense improvement in style and in method, and by her repeated choice of the better part of fiction..."(New York Times, February 10, 1900). The public received the book well, admiring the "ease and confidence" with which Johnston wrote (Mabie, 1900). The only real criticism was that the novel contained too much adventure. Mabie believed there to be "too many hair-breadth escapes; the pages are too overcrowded with incident"(Mabie, 1900). However this was also seen in a positive light because it showed the author's imagination and potential. Much was anticipated in the future from Mary Johnston because of her immense imagination. *The New York Times Saturday February 10, 1900. *Mabie, *Hamilton Wright. "Two Novelists." The Outlook, 4 February 1900.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Since her death Mary Johnston has received little critical attention (Bruccoli, 256). A description of "To Have and to Hold" on claimed that "it was the first romance novel to go to number one on an official bestseller list"( Portraying the book positively it contains quotes from book reviews of 1900. Claims like "Here is a romance ?told with a sweetness of spirit, a tenderness of fancy, a poetical insight that are rare indeed in the ?novel of adventure' and much to be prized''"(Review of Reviews) portray the success of the novel in the past and the still positive views of the novel at present. The sites has quotes from The Bookman, Commonweal and Review of Reviews. ( Other publications of Reviews were noted in Readers Guide to Periodical Literature: Harpers Magazine: J.L. Gilder Atantic Monthly: E. Simmons Bookman: K.P. Woods Critic: C.A. Pratt Dial: M. Payne 2000 Bookman: N. Hapgood April 2001 Bookman: R. Pyke Atlantic Monthly: H.W. Boynton May 2002

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Ilanna Padden Assignment 5: To Have and to Hold Introduction: Mary Johnston's second novel To Have and to Hold was a novel of great success during its time. The novel first appeared in advertisements in the New York Times Book Review and Publishers' Weekly two weeks before its actual publication date. The anticipation the public held for To Have and to Hold was well seen in its first week sales of above 64,000. Before its publication as a novel in 1900 to Have and To Hold was a serialized story published in the Atlantic Monthly published in weekly installments. Overall the book sold well with total sales climbing above 250,000. In addition it was the number 1 bestseller in the months of April and June of 1900 and number 2 in July 1900. However ads stopped appearing for the book in both Publishers' Weekly and The New York Times Book Review in September of 1900 and the book dropped out of the top 2 best-selling slots. Throughout the early part of the 20th century To Have and to Hold demonstrated that it was still somewhat popular with the release of two movie versions, 1916 and 1922, a musical drama in 1955 and a dramatized version of the book adapted by Ernest F. Boddington. To Have and To Hold was translated into Portuguese, Arabic and German. Although the book sold well and received notable praise throughout the first half of the 20th century, its popularity did not seem to stick. However its essence as a great novel is still remembered today by the fact that the book is still in print. If To Have and to Hold was such a huge success in 1900, why is it that the novel is virtually unknown today, or rather if the novel is unknown today what made it such a great success in the past? Cynthia Crossen addresses the same question in her article How many have you read? In her article she states "There are so many bestsellers these days that "bestseller" has become worthless as a measure of anything but the clout of the literary-industrial complex?So it's instructive to look through bestseller lists going back to 1900, and realize how many past hits have vanished from America's literary memory"(Crossen, 5/5/2002). She includes in her article a list of the bestsellers from 1900, To Have and to Hold leading the chart. What did the novels then, but lack now? In this essay I will primarily discuss the reasons for To Have and to Hold's decrease in popularity. The main reason being the genre in which the book is considered and the subject matter of the novel. Genre of the novel: To Have and to Hold is a historical fiction novel about Ralph Percy and his bride Jocelyn Leigh and the adventures and hardships they endure together. The main part of the book takes place in Jamestown during the 1600s. To Have and to Hold had the components of what the people liked to read. However it had something more, something that made it the number one selling novel of 1900. It was not only a novel about adventure, but also a "study of manners"(Mabie, 1900). Hamilton Wright Mabie had this to say about To Have and to Hold: "a very careful picture of the life of the old Commonwealth in its early and critical stages, when men had begun to strike roots into the soil, but before society had begun to take on its final forms...She has entered sympathetically and by the imagination into the spirit of those times..."(Mabie, 1900). Mary Johnston had a great deal of knowledge about Virginia history and she writes with ease about the subject. Bestseller of the times: Although her themes, style of writing and plot were renown in 1900, the reading public of the 21st century has a different style. There have been many adventure novels and romance novels throughout the 20th century that her style no longer stands out. The fact that she writes about "a very careful picture of the life of the old Commonwealth in its early and critical stages, when men had begun to strike roots into the soil, but before society had begun to take on its final forms...She has entered sympathetically and by the imagination into the spirit of those times..." is the reason the book has lost its touch. The subject of the old commonwealth is no longer what people are interested in reading. In the first few pages of the book the time period of the novel is revealed "Upon the afternoon of which I now speak, in the midsummer of the year of grace 1621, as I sat upon my doorstep?I did not see a horse emerge from the dimness?nor knew, until his voice came up the bank, that my good friend, Master John Rolfe, was without and would speak to me" (Johnston, 3). The time period of 1621 and knowledge of John Rolfe are both things that are not general knowledge today. The beginning story line of the novel has to do with certain traditions or events that took place during the time period and are understood in 21st century context. For example John Rolfe describes the conditions of the Thames to Ralph Percy "I have ridden to-day from Jamestown?I was the only man, I' faith, that cared to leave its gates; and I met the world?the bachelor world?flocking to them?And the boats upon the river! I have not seen the Thames less crowded"(Johnston, 5). Percy responds, "There was more passing than usual"(Johnston, 5). How is the reader supposed to know what is usual and unusual about the sequence of events if they do not contain the cultural background to understand the situation. Also references are made to historical people that were famous, or well known to Johnston at the time. For example "Opechancanough who was now their emperor" is not something that people would understand while reading the book at present. (Johnston, 5). Some passages incorporate so many historical characters and events as a passing reference and never explain their significance or meaning "As I lay back in the stern with half-shut eyes and tiller idle in my hand, our many tribulations and our few joys passed in review before me. Indian attacks; dissension and strife amongst our rulers; true men persecuted, false knaves elevated; the weary search for gold and the South Sea; the horror of the pestilence and the blacker horror of the Starving Time; the arrival of the Patience and Deliverance, whereat we wept like children; that most joyful Sunday morning when we followed my Lord de la Warre to church; the coming of dale with that stern but wholesome martial code which was no stranger to me who had fought under Maurice of Nassau?the marriage of Rolfe and his dusky princess?" There are so many names present that it is hard to grasp who each individual and even was. John Rolfe and his princess Pocahontas were mentioned as an indication that the characters were historical and not made up. The language in which she writes is different from that which more modern books are written. Some of the words are no longer used in modern vocabulary. For example the word lodestar is used to describe "The star that draws us all?some to ruin, some to bliss ineffable, -- women"(Johnston, 5). It has an almost old English style to it "But these forest creatures that you take, -- will they not bite against springe and snare? Are they Scrupulous as to how they free themselves? I too was in the toils of the hunter, and I too was not scrupulous"(Johnston, 35). The language she uses, though it is beautiful and well-written prose, is not the style or writing one would find today. Even though To Have and to Hold had great success in 1900 its success did not continue throughout the century because it was a bestseller of the times. The other bestsellers of 1900 were of the same genre: novels about historical fiction. Most of these novels were about adventure; the adventures the characters endure while exploring a new land or adventures about some moment in history. Ranked number 3 on the 1900 bestseller list was James Lane Allen's The Reign of Law, a novel about marijuana cultivation in Kentucky for the rope industry. Also on the bestseller list of 1900 is Eben Holden by Irving Bacheller ranked at number 5. It is the story of last century's woodcutter's emerging from Vermont and traveling west. All of these books were stories of frontier and pioneer life, an interesting and popular subject for the year 1900. Conclusion: Cynnthia Crossen states that the best-selling authors of 1900 "were the John Grishams and Anne Rices of their eras"( Crossen, 5/5/2002). It is indeed an accurate statement when describing such novels such as To Have and to Hold. Mary Johnston was a renowned author that went on to publish and sell many more books after To Have and to Hold. The reason To Have and to Hold celebrated such wide range success in the past, and none in the present is because of the subject matter and style of the novel. The novel is a well-written, high quality piece of literature. It has lots of storyline and in depth characters. It is simply that the time in which the novel is set was so long ago that the event in which Johnston refers to have no meaning to present society. The impact the novel now holds is no longer as great as in the past. Johnston is still remembered as a great author by recent reviews of her book and present publication and the novel. Although at present the book may not be held high regard, it's past popularity and impact in the publication world will always be remembered.

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