Wright, Harold Bell: The Re-Creation of Brian Kent
(researched by Jennifer Celesia)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

The first edition was published in 1919 by the Book Supply Co. in Chicago, Ill. The original copyright was held by Harold Bell Wright and was placed in 1919. An additional copyright for the biography in the back of the novel was also made in 1919 by Elsbery W. Reynolds. There were no simultaneous first editions published, however an impression was made of the first edition in 1919, by Appleton, Inc.

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

The first American edition was printed in cloth binding.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

180 leaves, pp.[2] [1-4] 5(6)7(8)9-11(12)13-40 [2] 41-148 [2] 149-328 [2] 329-343 [1] 345-352.

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

The novel is not edited nor is it introduced. Wright has included a short quote from "Gongar Hill" by John Dyer just before his opening chapter. There is also a section opposite of the title page, promoting Wright's other novels. At the end of the text, In the back is a biography of Wright's life written by Elsbery W. Reynolds.

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

There are four colored plates, reproduced from what appears to be watercolor paintings. The illustrations were created by J. Allen St. John. They represent certain scenes from the novel and each has a quote from the scene underneath it. The first is placed as the frontispiece opposite the title page, the second is facing pg.40, another faces pg. 148, and the last faces pg. 328.

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The type is pleasant to the eye, as it is reasonably sized at .5 mm; however, the type is a bit on the light side. There are wide bottom side margins. The chapters are labeled by roman numerals and the beginning of each sentence has a capitalized and elaborately printed(with a special design) first letter. Many of the latter pages in the novel, however, have been worn out completely, leaving blank pages where there should be text. This perhaps indicates a poor quality of ink or a harsh exposure to the elements. The page size is 18.5 mm and the text size is 1mm.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper is of a thick, and coarse quality; not at all refined. It seems, rather, to lack good quality. The color has yellowed over time, but the paper of the text itself is in good condition. The paper for the illustrations seems to be of a better quality, but its delicacy has caused its edges to be torn and severly yellowed in comparison with the rest of the novel.

11 Description of binding(s)

The binding is of a light moderate reddish brown cloth and has been stiched. It appears to be of a ribbed grain, although the pattern is very worn. On the front cover, the title and the author's name are impressed on the cloth with gold lettering and a gold frame encompasses the entire front. The spine also uses gold lettering for the title, the author's last name, and the publisher's company at the bottom. Front cover transcription reads: THE RE-CREATION of BRIAN KENT| HAROLD|BELL WRIGHT Spine translation reads: THE|RE-CREATION|OF|BRIAN KENT| WRIGHT|THE BOOK SUPPLY|COMPANY

12 Transcription of title page

recto: The RE-CREATION|OF BRIAN KENT|A NOVEL|BY|HAROLD BELL WRIGHT| AUTHOR OF|"THE SHEPARD OF THE HILLS"|"WHEN A MAN'S A MAN"| ETC.,ETC.|Illustrations by|J. Allen St. John|THE BOOK SUPPLY COMPANY|PUBLISHERS, CHICAGO verso: THE RE-CREATION OF BRIAN KENT|Copyright, 1919|By HAROLD BELL WRIGHT|Copyright, 1919|By ELSBERY W. REYNOLDS| All Rights Reserved|Published August, 1919|Printed in the United States of America

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

No manuscript holdings could be found.

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

The book is dedicated to Wright's "Auntie Sue" who he made into a character in this novel. His dedication is written in letter format, and is addressed to her in a very personal style. In it, he explains his reasons for using her as a character in her novel and asks to be forgiven for any offense. It is touching the way that Wright reveals such a private part of his life to his audience and it makes the reader interested in his portrayal of his character "Auntie Sue."

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

there were no other first editions.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

there was one impression of the first edition. It was by Appleton in 1919. There were no other first edition printings that were made. source: The British Library General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1975. London: C. Bingley, 1975.

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

yes; Appleton, 1977;Hodder & Stoughton, 1923;Classic Books,1999; Amereon, Limited, 2000.

6 Last date in print?

its last publication date was in 1999. It is currently in print for release in 2000.

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

as of 1977, 750,000 copies had been sold.

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

702,000 had been sold between 1919-1920. There was no record for year-by-year sales after the initial publication year. The only information availabe was that by 1977, 750,000 copies had been sold, indicated that 48,000 were sold between 1921 and 1977.

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

frame/Books by HAROLD BELL WRIGHT/Philadelphia Sunday Dispatch - "The secret/of his power is the same God-given secret/that inspired Shakespeare and upheld Dick-/ens." Advertisement found on an inside leaf of a first edition of "The Re-Creation of Brian Kent" advertising eight different novels of Harold Bell Wright.

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

there was an advertisement in the Publisher's Weekly, vol.96 July-Dec., 1919 on page 472.

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

There was a back and white film made in 1925 by Principle Pictures. It was directed by Sam Wood and produced by Sol Lesser. source: The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures in the U.S., vol 2. London: Scarecrow Press, 1935.

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

there were no translations to be found of this novel

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A


15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A


Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Harold Bell Wright, a clergyman-turned-novelist, wrote his novels to promote "clean living"; in essence, to preach using text. His best-seller "The Re-Creation of Brian Kent," a story of the struggle of identity and love, is a classic example of Wright's simple, clear style written to the working class. Wright's childhood played a serious part in the effect of his literature on his readers later in life. The loss of his mother and the desertion of his father at a very young age left Wright homeless and loveless. As a result of his loss, Wright received no formal education and lived in many different family situations, all of which kept him poor and longing for his old way of life. Wright turned to the clergy in an attempt to help others who were similar in their plight, but eventually he left the clergy to pursue his fiction writing. Wright's charcters in his novels are very often people who struggle between right and wrong. They are not ambiguous characters or situations, but very straightforward, owing to Wright's self-educated style of expressing himself through writing. The Re-Creation of Brian Kent" was written mid-way through Wright's writing career and was essentially written during the peak of his popularity. The novel was Wright's third best-seller and, while it was not as popular as some of Wright's other best-sellers, it owedmuch of its succes to the time period in which it was written. The novel was published in 1918, shortly after WW1. The feeling of disgust and disappointment felt in conjunction with the treatment of the Jews by the Nazis led many Americans to desire a novel that "redeemed" man in their eyes. Wright's heroes in the novel are God-loving people with a sense of compassion and morality, both characteristics that fed the appetites of the American ideal. The novel, published by the Book Supply Co., was the last novel by Harold Bell Wright that was published by Elseberry Reynold's company and, subsequently, the last novel EVER published by them (Wright was their only client.) However, in distributing the novel across the country, they were sure to stock the novel in many rural American towns. Manyof the population in these towns were uneducated and simple like Wright himself, and could therefore, connect to his work and understand his meaning. This made Wright a very popular author as a large portion of Americans post-WW1 moved back to these rural towns to recooperate from the war. Harold Bell Wright essentially wrote what he understood. He did not try to imitate a style or create one either. For a time, Wright lived in the Ozark Mountains and many of his novels, including "The Re-Creation of Brian Kent," are set in the same area in which he lived. Although Wright was often chastized by critics for his simple style and themes, he became a great icon of American literature because normal, everyday readers could understand him and could feel connected to his writing and to him, most importantly. Sources: Hann, Carol. "Harold Bell Wright: Popular California Author" California Book Collector, Vol.1, No.2. California: Dan Lewis, 1989. Ifkovic, Edward. Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Novelists, 1910-1945, Part 3: Sandoz-Young. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1981

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Due to Harold Bell Wright's simple themes and self-educated background, his works were often criticized by critics as overly simplistic and childish. While he was readily accepted by rural inhabitants of the middle and lower classes, he was shunned by the "educated" societies of urban areas such as New York City. While Wright's good intentions were reconized in his works, he was still considered a poor quality writer by most critics. Some, however, heartily supported his religiously-based themes and conflicts. "It would be difficult to imagine a mushier, more ridiculous mess set forth as a book of fiction than 'The Re-Creation of Brian Kent'...its people are impossible, its story lame and creaky, its sentiment mawkish, and as a whole it is absurd. But it will appeal to and delight hundreds of thousands of its predestined audience just because its people are impossible and its sentiment mawkish." -New York Times, Aug. 31, 1919. "..that its descriptions..are such as can be found in many a young ladies' high-school essay; that its character portrayal is trivial; and that its 'dramatic action' would stir the blood of nobody more experienced in the reading of fiction than the secretary of the W.C.T.U. in Thompsonville, Mo." -E.L.P., Boston Transcript, Nov. 1, 1919, pg.8 "..plot not as forceful or good as the authors' previous books." -Wisconsin Library Bulletin, Oct. 1919 "A lively plot with something doing all the time and a love story revolving around sin, forgiven and effort rewarded." -Webb, Doris. Publisher's Weekly, Aug. 16, 1919 source: Knight, Marion and James, Mertice, eds. Book Review Digest, vol.15. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1920.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

There was not much of the subsequent reception history to be found other than indication that the most recent sentiment towards this novel is that while it is a treasured tale and the author's style is very relaxed and readable, he is not considered to be a "great" writer of any novels.

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Harold Bell Wright and the "Popularity" of the Best-Seller The term "best-seller" has long defined a type of literary work that becomes popular among the American public during its publication, and is therefore bought at a very high rate (in comparison to contemporary works) and makes the most amount of money for its author in a fiscal year. It is an honor for an author to have a work on the "best-seller" list because it deems the work popular and enjoyable to a majority of readers; however, we must ask ourselves, "What exactly does it mean to be a best-seller?" If we applied today's standards, we may say that a best-seller is a literary work that combines an intelligent and intriguing style of writing with a hint of suspense, drama, or other emotion associated with plot and character. However, a best-seller thirty years ago may have an entirely different description and therefore, my assessment of a best-seller would be incorrect. What we must learn from this example is that popularity, as it defines the idea of a being a best-seller, can often define the era of readers rather than the quality of the book, as trends do change over time. Harold Bell Wright, an author of eighteen novels during his lifetime (7 were best-sellers the year they were printed), is a poignant example of this idea of popularity associated with a specific time period. Wright has often been criticized by critics as having an overly simplistic style of writing, along with no character development and shallow plots. Nonetheless, to better understand the concept of a best-seller and what it means to be a best-seller, we can contemplate the case of Harold Bell Wright, who, while he was fiercely criticized as one of the least talented authors of the early 20th century, was simultaneously the second or third most popular author between 1911 and 1919. We can first assert that Wright's novel, THE RECREATION OF BRIAN KENT, published in 1919, was the last of immensely popular novels that he would write. Placed on the best-seller list in 1919 and in 1920, the novel revealed that Wright's appeal to the American public was drawing to a close. However, at the time, his impending fall from popularity was unforeseen - Wright was enjoying his peak of success at this point in his career. His popularity, mostly among rural American townsfolk, was a direct result of his uncomplicated and clear writing style and his characterizations of simple mountain people. Wright who had grown up as a poor, self-educated man, yearned to reach out to the "roughnecks" in hopes of preaching to them morality and basic Christian values. Thus it was no surprise that Wright's novels were immensely popular among rural Americans, who consisted of over half of all American population until 1940 because of the economic and social situation of the country. By the end of the nineteenth century, America had seen the rise of industrial and agricultural revolutions, democratization, centralization, and urbanization (Howard and Louis, 1998). Americans believed themselves to be ready for the 20th century. With the invention of Henry Ford's Model-T and the first assembly-line factory, the country saw its cities as the wave of a new generation and a new way to improve in both social and economical conditions. Thomas Edison and the electricity industry took off in the 1900s and the centralized cities were what profited off of this new invention (Howard and Louis, 1998). Rural America was steadfastly being left in the dust as a result of being isolated from the centers of cultural growth. As a result of the country's new attachment to capitalism, farmers began to suffer because there was too little capital for the number of farmers to be supported by the economy. Many of the rural towns were left in the dark, both literally and metaphorically speaking, with the rise of cities and the power that encircled them (Howard and Louis, 1998). Social conflicts between classes and regions began to grow and many prejudices, mainly against the poor, uneducated rural American, were being formed. Education was poorly conducted, if at all, in rural America and the country farmers felt the sting of inferiority from the upper classes of urban cities. World War I broke the promise of American life for these farmers as the cost of living doubled and the draft took young men away from farms. The women and preachers of the rural towns worried about the effect on morals war would have on their young men, seeing as the men had, often times, never been exposed to metropolitan areas, much less foreign land (Howard and Louis, 1998). At the end of World War I, the men returned home, but not in time to save the economy. With the country exporting more capital than importing, farm-owners plunged into debt and most did not come out of it until the beginning of World War II. The importance of the historical background during the time of Harold Bell Wright's success is quite apparent when one reads his novels. Many newspapers throughout the United States claimed his works were "clean, pure, and wholesome" (Hann, 1989). Many of his novels entertain problems, values, and concerns that were of a universal nature to the majority of the population at the time of the book's publication. Wright used his preacher tendencies to introduce ideas of social heritage, such as the American work ethic and the "ideal" American. People who read his novels were often those searching for a novel that would inspire in them the hope that man was still good and that that good would reside over evil. Wright was a master of dialect and never chose to ignore social problems or economical problems, but addressed them face-on in his works. Most of his readers were probably comforted by Wright's novels, which ensured them that morality was being reinforced in a new age of modernity. Wright's largest, and by far most dedicated, readership consisted mainly of rural farmers for several reasons. First, the college-educated businessmen of the cities were turned off by Wright's simple narrative and his use of the "preachy message" in his works. It is safe to say that Christianity was suffering in the growth of industrial cities, while rural America struggled to hang on to its religious and moral values. Rural America was confused over the role of religion in their lives; they needed direction and Wright delivered it (Ifkovic, DLB, 1981). Wright's own religious fervor grew from his background, as an orphaned child who constantly moved from family to family. He was a self-taught man, which might explain his simple style and his basic themes. Wright moved to the Ozark Mountains, where most of his novels took place, and began to work as a minister. Years later, Wright left the ministry to follow his passion for writing. Wright began to write his novels with a moral, usually following the beliefs of Christian faith. His style started to take on a preaching affect that promoted what he referred to as "clean living" (Hann, 1989). He also wrote of the mountain folk that surrounded him, and he was eventually rewarded with unprecedented popularity among the "working class" who could relate to the stories told by Wright's characters. Wright had attained his goal of continuing his ministry through his published writings. While Wright's background certainly played a large part in his success, he gained most of his readership as a result of his publisher's efforts. Elsberry W. Reynolds, owner of the Book Supply Co., saw the possible profit in Wright's writing style and convinced him to sign with the company in 1903, upon the publication year of his first novel. Reynolds became a staunch supporter of Wright's books and used his shrewd business savvy to promote his novels nationwide. The first inkling of sales resulted mainly from word-of-mouth, from neighbor to neighbor. However, soon Wright's upcoming novels were advertised in Christian magazines and free postcards sent to bookstores that ordered his novels. In addition to the increased advertisement, Reynolds had Wright's novels shipped to drug stores and bookstores all over small towns in America, making his the first novels to be sold via mail order. The mass-marketing techniques that Reynolds employed served to make Wright known throughout the country, especially in small, rural towns. Ironically, the Book Supply Co. was located in Chicago, a largely industrial-based city. Wright was living in the Imperial Valley region of California - a largely unpopulated area - during the mainframe of his success. Wright's unpopularity largely stemmed from his critics, who regarded his simplistic narratives as a "ridiculous mess" and very plainly, "bad book[s]" (Book Review Digest, 1919 and 1921). In comparison to contemporary novels of the time, Wright's works were rather light in content. His rival authors included Zane Grey, Winston Churchill, H.G. Wells, and Eleanor Porter - all of whom were distinguished literary authors in Northern cities of "intellectuals" and college-educated citizens. Such authors had novels with intricate plots and were central to many great themes of literature, which were aimed at the higher-educated reader; Wright was no match. Also, novels on the war came out and claimed much interest of the North and its critics. Harold Bell Wright's meanderings with the theme of good versus evil just seemed too trivial in light of the impending war and its possibilities. However, perhaps that was the reason that his works were so popular in the rural towns; perhaps the men and women of the country needed a break from the seriousness of war and craved the sense of security that Wright provided in his novels. Nevertheless, the bad reviews did NOT seem to have an effect on the sale of Wright's novels; in fact, his greatest sales boom was concurrent with the publications of his worst reviews. This observation goes to show how little reviews can affect a novel's stature when compared with word-of-mouth and good marketing. Within the end of Wright's popularity as an author - his decline began around the publication of his last best seller, HELEN OF THE OLD HOUSE - the country had changed dramatically and had so forced his readership to alter their views about his writing. With the end of World War I, the men returned home and life was significantly changed. More and more men (and soon women) were becoming college-educated in response to the growing technology of the war and the urge to be in sync with the modern times (Howard and Louis, 1998). It is safe to say that Wright was the one of the last early nineteenth century writers for the "common man." Among the new 1920s morality, including gin, wild parties, and the flapper, Wright could not reassure the younger population of his genteel messages and he lost his appeal in the new industrial America (Ifkovic, DLB, 1991). The case of Harold Bell Wright's popularity exemplifies the effect that economic and social change in a country can have on an author's success and influence. If we look at what best-sellers today are written about, we could uncover a lot about the culture of our modern times. With our romance novels, science-fiction thrillers, and murder-mysteries, one could generalize quite a bit about our society and its apparent fetish with the cheap, superficial thrill we get from reading them. So it can be concluded that best-sellers can be a reflection of many different influences, mostly those that relate to the society of the time period. Harold Bell Wright didn't fail to "preach" his message of finding God; the times simply were a'changing, just as they will for today's best-sellers with the entrance of a new millennium and new ideals for the growth of our culture. Works Cited Hann, Carol. "Harold Bell Wright: Popular California Author." California Book Collector, Vol. 1, No. 2. California: Dan Lewis, 1989. Howard, Michael and Louis, William R., eds. The Oxford History of the Twentieth Century. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Ifkovic, Edward. "Harold Bell Wright." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 9: American Novelists, 1910-1945, Part 3: Sandoz-Young. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1981. Knight, Marion and James, Mertice, eds. Book Review Digest, vol. 15. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1920. Knight, Marion and James, Mertice, eds. Book Review Digest, vol. 17. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1922.

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