Churchill, Winston: The Crisis
(researched by David Sukites)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Winston Churchill. The Crisis. New York: The MacMillan Company; London: MacMillan & CO., LTD.: 1901.

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

First American edition is published in a trade c loth binding.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

280 leaves, pp. [6] [i-ii] [2] [iii-vi] vii-ix [x] 1-18 [2] 19-96 [2] 97-114 [2] 115-170 [2] 171-236 [2] 237-338 [2] 339-472 [2] 473-522 [6] Gathering letters thoughout book: B-I, K-U, X-2I, 2K-2L

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

This edition shows no indication of being edited or introduced. There is an afterword section where the author explains why he chose St. Louis as the setting for the story. He justifies his choice because this setting was the place where Northerners and Southerners lived together. (p. 521) There are publisher's advertisements for two other works written by Churchill: Richard Carvel and the Celebrity. They are located in the back of the book.

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Black and white drawings on inserted glossy plates illustrated and signed by Howard Chandler Christy. They are located in the following places: frontispiece and facing pages 18, 96, 114, 170, 236, 338, 472. Each drawing contains a legend listing a key dialog from the story. For example the frontispie ce legend states "Max, You Are Going to Stay Here?" Along with the accompanying drawing, the legend conveys a sense of urgency and excitment, coaxing the individual to read the body of the text to experience more. There is a list of illustrations and thei r accompanying legends on page ix.

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The size of the page is 19.3 x 13.3 cm. (7 5/8 x 5 1/4 in.). The size of the text is 14 x 9.5 cm. (5 1/2 x 3 3/4 in.). The size of the type is 73R. The type is serif. Physical presentation o f text attractive although the small space between the rows of lightly printed text can produce eye strain. Typography very readable overall, with some sloppy exceptions. There are various pages that show improper inking. Pages 62 and 63, presents exa mples of not enough ink present in the press at time of printing (y in yet, br in embrace). Pages 110 and 111 show examples of blurry words (Mississippi, On) that may indicate that too much ink was used in printing these pages or that the pages were hand led before drying. Page 257 presents an example of double images of words. There are very little instances of type wear and cracking seen in some of the most common letters (vowels a and e, consoonant s). The text appears to be uniform throughout the bo ok with the exception of large font sizes seen on the title page and chapter headings and smaller font sizes for the plate legends and in the table of contents. The page margins are amply sized. However, the sizes vary between the pages. The illustrations are in excellent condition. They are 14.5 x 10.5 cm. in size. The illustations are centered on each plate with the legends found directly underneath in the lower center of the plate. The overall physical presentation of this book shows how quickly popular works of 100 years ago were printed. Making corrections to minor errors like type were sacrificed to the financial neccessity of getting a book out on the market quickly.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The texture of the wove paper in this book differs between its two sides. The recto tends to have a smooth and glossy consistancy; the verso is rough to the touch. The paper is perhaps Bond, Wove, American as discovered in Labarre's Di ctionary of Paper and Paper-Making Terms (Amsterdam: N.V. Swets & Zeitlinger, 1937). Some of the pages are uncut for decorative purposes and resemble deckle edges. The plates are made of glossy stock. The frontispiece plate is protected by tipped-in tis sue paper. The pages of this book are faintly discolored due to its acid content. This is further evidenced by a stain from an inserted object (bookmark?) that has bled an acid mark on pages 376-377. There is also a minor stain on the tails of pages 336- 41. There is minor foxing around the margins of many pages. This is evidenced by a faint mold or mildew smell eminating from the book. Very minor incidences of tears on the fore-edges on pages 171-2, 173-4, and 381-2 and on the head of pages 515-6. Larg er tear on the fore edge of pages 341-2. Otherwise the condition of the paper is excellent. None of the damage interferes with the readability of the text.

11 Description of binding(s)

Dark red trade cloth binding with a rib grain texture. Stamped gilt author and title let ters on front cover. Stamped gilt author, title, and publisher information on spine. Stamped gilt three star pattern and border on cover. Stamped gilt three star pattern and horizontal lines near head and tail endcaps. Gilt top edge; fore edge cut; both cut and uncut bottom edge. Moderate wear on both endcaps. Some damage to the back binding. Cover information: THE *** | CRISIS | CHURCHILL Spine Information: THE***| CRISIS | WINSTON CHURCHILL | THE MACMILLAN | COMPANY

12 Transcription of title page

Recto: THE CRISIS | BY | WINSTON CHURCHILL | AUTHOR OF "RICHARD CARVEL," THE CELEBRITY," ETC. | WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY | HOWARD CHANDLER CHRISTY | NEW YORK | THE MACMILLIAN COMPANY | LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO. , LTD. | 1901 | All rights reserved Verso Center of Page: COPYRIGHT, 1901, | BY THE MACMILLIAN COMPANY. Verso Bottom of Page: Norwood Press | J.S. Cushing & Co. -- Berwick & Smith | Norwood Mass. U.S.A.

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

Verson of frontispiece contains publisher's symbol. Dedication on p. [v] reads To J. B. G. and L. M. G.. Small inscription of inventory number and price of this book on front free endpaper. No other inscriptions and no stamps can be found inside the book. This is a very "clean copy". No indication of providence beyond the bookseller (Read Ordstein, N.Y.) This is a book that has been handled well, but also read (wear on spine, loose feel of binding). Book may have bee n stored in a basement because of the foxing and mold or mildew smell.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

Yes. Other editions were published in:
1901: 516 p., 18 cm.
1901: 434 p. 21 cm Further printings: 1929, 1947, 1951, 1955. 1959, and 1969 at 20-22 cm.
1901 (issued in boxed set with holiday ed. of Richard Carvel). Enclosed in the box with an extra broad wrapper, bound in half-sheep with gilt lettering, and sides of buff buckram. The frontispiece by Christy has been moved to face the tabl
e of contents and has been replaced with a portrait of Churchill. (The Dial 31, no. 372, 16 Dec. 1901: 520) 1902: James K. Hackett theatre edition with scenes from the play and portraits of leading cast members. 522 p.
1902: Illustrated theatre edition 75c.
1904: Macmillan paper novel series, (Special ed.) 522 p. pap, 25 cents. Printed June and July 1904, July 1905.
1908: Macmillan's Colonial Library, no. 441, 522 p., 20 cm.
1921: Macmillan's pocket American and English classics, (school edition) editied by Walter Barnes, 543 p., 15 cm. Illustration of Abraham Lincoln on frontispiece. Bibliography on p. 543. Line numbers in margins of each
page. Additional printings: 1926, and 1928.
1927: New Uniform edition, 18 cm.
1929: 520 p.
1929: viii, 434 p., front., plates, 20 cm. Another impression: 1929: 22 cm.
1930: Revised edition of 1921. New Pocket Classics. Edited by Walter Barnes. Revised by H.Y. Moffet. Illustrations drawn by Herbert Williams after Howard C. Christy. 750 p., 17 cm.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

Further first editon (May 1901) printings or impressions:
June 1901: three times
July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. 1901: twice
Feb., Oct. 1902: twice
Feb., Oct. 1903
Dec. 1905
Jan., May, Sept., Dec. 1906
Mar. 1907
1910, 1912, 1914, 1920, 1925, 1926, 1944, 1949

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

Grosset and Dunlap:
1901: 522 p., 20 cm. Illustrations by Howard Chandler Christy. Six pages of advertisements in back of book. Less illustrations than in first Macmillan ed.. Frontispiece has illustration found on page 114 of Macmillian's first edition instead of
illustration found in Macmillian's first edition frontispiece. Overall, quality of Grosset and Dunlap's printing, paper, and illustrations is inferior to Macmillian's.
Further Grosset and Dunlap printings:
1905, 1910, 1912, 1913, 1916, 1929.
1901: With scenes from photo-play. Further printings: 1905, 1914, 1916.
1927: 516 p. Further printing: 1929.
Copp Clark Co., 1901 Canadian ed., Toronto. Christy illustrations.
S. French, 1927. French's Standard Library edition. A dramatization of the Crisis novel. A play in four acts. 96 p. with diagrams.
Giberton, 1958. Classics Illustrated, no. 145. 45 p. with color illustrations.
Washington Square Press, 1962. Introduction by Joseph Mersand. 442 p. Paperback, 60 cents. (Paperbound Books in Print 14, no. 7, New York: R.R. Bowker, July 1969: 696).
Arden, 1982. Reprint. Illustrations by Christy.
Bucaneer Books, 1984. 432 p. Reprint edition. Library Binding. $32.95. (Books in Print, 1997-98 Supplement. New Providence, N.J.: R.R. Bowker, 1998: 399).
In addition to sources mentioned above, the following sources were consulted in answering questions 1, 4 and 5:
Book Resources: American Book Publishing Record Cummulative 1876-1949. NY: R.R. Bowker Company, 1980: 205-6.
The British Library General Catalog of Printed Books: 294.
The British Library General Catalog of Printed Books to 1975: 244.
Churchill, The Crisis. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1901.
Literary Writings in America: A Bibliography, vol. 2. Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, 1977: 2057-8.
National Union Catalog: Pre-1956 Imprints.
National Union Catalog: Pre-1956 Imprints Supplement.
National Union Catalog: 1956-67 Imprints.
The Publisher's Weekly, no. 1692. 2 July 1904.
United States Catalog. Books in Print, 1902: 378.
United States Catalog. Books Published 1902-5 Suppl.: 352.
Online Resources:
Library of Congress MUMS Database
OCLC Prism
OCLC Worldcat

6 Last date in print?

According to Books in Print, Supplment to 1997-8, the 1984 reprint edition of the Crisis, library binding, published by Buccaneer Books is still in print. (Books in Print, 1997-98 Supplement. New Providence, N.J.: R.R. Bowker, 1998: 399).
All book editions are listed as out of print. (; Internet; Accessed 22 April 1999.)

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

As of 1975, 1,243,307 copies of the Crisis were sold. (Hackett. Alice Payne and James Henry Burke, Eighty Years of Best Sellers 1895-1975, New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1977, 26.)

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

From 1901-1909: 750,000 copies were sold. (Schneider, Robert W. Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976, 297.)
As of 1945: 1,061,000 copies. (Hackett, Alice Payne. Fifty Years of Best Sellers 1895-1945. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1945: 118)
As of 1955: 1,232,380 copies. (Hackett, Alice Payne. 60 Years of Best Sellers 1895-1955. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1956: 28.)
As of 1965: 1,243,307 copies. (Hackett, Alice Panye. 70 Years of Best Sellers 1895-1965. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1967: 25.)

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Extensive pre and early publication advertisements from Macmillan Company in Publishers Weekly. Some later coverage as well. All advertisements use bold lettering, listings of positive sales history and reviews of the Crisis, and reputation of the
author and illustrator to sell the book. Coverage begins with an advertisement of "New and Forthcoming Novels" that states that the Crisis is now in press and is eagerly awaited by readers of the historical genre. (Publisher's Weekly 20 April 1901, 1031
.) A May 18th advertisement gives the reader the setting of the story as well as its connection to Churchill's previous novel Richard Carvel. That the book will be illustrated by Howard Chandler Christy and is sized is mentioned as well. (Ibid., 18 Ma
y 1901, 1204) Early publication advertisements for the Crisis list quotes from rave reviews from such publications as Chicago Tribune, The Bookman, The New Times, and Book News. In the June 1st advertisment, Macmillian tells the reader that this book is "The Best
Story this Author has Yet Written". The advertisement from June 15, 1901 displays a illustration from the book. Both advertisements sell the book by mentioning Christy as the illustrator as well. (Ibid., 1 June 1901, 1349 and 15 June 1901, 1427) The Crisis is advertised later as well. There is a Macmillan advertisement for the James K. Hackett edition that includes photographs from the play and leading cast members. (Ibid., 18 Oct. 1902, 841) There is also a Macmillan advertisement for th
e 25 cent paper cover special edition. (Ibid., 26 Mar. 1904, 96)

The Publisher's Weekly. Advertisemement Citations.
No. 1525, 20 April 1901: 1031. No. 1529, 18 May 1901: 1204. No. 1531, 1 June 1901: 1349. No. 1533, 15 June 1901: 1427. No. 1603, 18 Oct. 1902: 841. No. 1678 26 Mar. 1904: 96.

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

Similar Macmillan advertisements in the New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement, The Dial, and Current Literature. The June 1, 1901 advertisement in the The Dial is almost identical to the Publisher's Weekly ad. for th
e same day including the same reviews. New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement advertisement for June 8, 1901 is nearly identical to the Publisher's Weekly ad. for June 15, 1901. The layout of the type appears to be the major difference among the
se advertisements. One example of an unique Macmillan promotion is from the May 25, 1901 day of publication advertisement in the New York Times. In this advertisement are quotations from historical figures written in The Crisis including Lincoln, Grant, and Sherman.
Advertisements cited:
The Dial. 1 June 1901: 9. New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement. 25 May 1901: 367. New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement. 8 June 1901: 407.

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Theatre production of the crisis first produced Nov. 17, 1902 by J.K. Hackett at Wallack's Theatre. (Who Was Who in the Theatre, 1912-1976. Detroit: Gale Reasearch, 1978: 451).
Motion Picture of the Crisis, 1916. Directed by Colin Campbell. CAST: George Fawcett, Matt Synder, Bessie Eyton... Selig Polyscope Company. 12 reels, silent, b&w. (MUMS) First public performance of the film in Minneapolis, Minnesota on Dec. 24, 1916. (American Film Institutute Catalog. Feature Films, 1911-1920. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press, 1988: 174-5) Sound Recording: 1984 and 1988. Audio Book Contractors. Narrated by Flo Gibson. On 11 analog sound cassettes. (OCLC Prism)
Same: 1988. 7 sound cassettes, mono. (OCLC Prism)
Audio cassette, vol. 11, Jan. 1991. ISBN 1556851278. (; Internet; Accessed 22 April 1999)

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Robert W. Schneider in The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill states that most of Churchill's books were translated into other language
s. (Schneider 1976, 297) However, searches on the online catalogs of the National Libraries of France, Germany, Spain and Switzerland produce no hits for this book or no hits in another language.
Schneider, Robert W. Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976.

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A


15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

In an avertisement for the Crisis in the May 18, 1901 issue of Publishers' Weekly, Winston Churchill is quoted as saying that this book, while not in a true sense a sequel, is part of a historical sequence. The herione of the Crisis, Virginia C
arvel, is the great-granddaughter, of Richard Carvel. (Publisher's Weekly 1529, 18 May 1901: 1204) Churchill had an idea of a "series of four or five interconnected novels showing the great forces which have gone to the making of this country" to dealing with contemporary times. (New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement 5 Oct. 1901, 690) It appears that only Richard Carvel and The Crisis had an
y sort of direct connection with the characters.

Publishers' Weekly 1529, 18 May 1901: 1204.
Churchill, Winston. Richard Carvel...With illustrations by Carlton T. Chapman and Malcolm Fraser. New York, The Macmillian company; London, Macmillian and co., ltd., 1900. xiii, 538 p., front., plates. 20 cm.
"Winston Churchill." New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement 5 (October 1901): 690.

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

American author Winston Churchill was born in St. Louis, Mo., November 10, 1871, son of Edward Spalding Churchill and Emma Bell (Blaine) Churchill. After receiving his early education at the Smith Academy in St. Louis, he graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1894. However, Churchill's naval career was very brief. He resigned September 11, 1894. Winston Churchill began his career as the naval editor of the Army and Navy Journal, than as assistant to the managing editor of Cosmopolitan Magazine in 1895. Churchill married Mabel Harlakenden, also from St. Louis, on October 22, 1895. Winston Churchill was best known during his lifetime as a historical and political novelist. His first novel, The Celebrity: An Episode (1898), satirized the literary and fashionable world at the time. It was with his second novel, Richard Carvel (1899), that Churchill gained notoriety for portraying authentic characters and events through conscientious research. In this case the time period of the story is during the American Revolution. His next novel, The Crisis (1901), is set in St. Louis before and during the American Civil War. This book, portrayed a fresh perspective of the society and politics of the people living in this city during this time. His 1904 novel, The Crossing, is a romance concerning the settling of Kentucky. After 1904, Churchill's writing turned from historical novels to works that deal with politics. Unlike his historical novels, he neglected character and plot development in favor of critiquing contemporary issues such as New England Politics and monopolies. These works include Coniston (1906), Mr. Crewe's Career (1908), and A Far Country (1915). These novels helped spark an interest in politics for Churchill. He served in the Legislature of New Hampshire for two terms and was a candidate for governor. Churchill's later works deal with social and religious matters. These include A Modern Chronicle (1910), The Inside of the Cup (1913), The Dwelling Place of Light (1917), and The Uncharted Way (1940). Churchill's works also were portrayed on stage. These include adaptations of earlier novels, Richard Carvel, The Crisis, and The Crossing, and original plays, such as The Title Mart (1902) and Dr. Jonathan (1919). During his career, two individuals had a profound influence in Churchill's literary career. Churchill gained much scholarly and professional advise from Dr. Albert Shaw. The other was George P. Brett of the Macmillian company, who had a close publisher-author relationship with Churchill. Winston Churchill spent most of literary career in New Hampshire. Residences include Cornish, N.H. and Plainfield, N.H.. He died March 12, 1947 at a friend's house in Winter Park. He was buried beside his wife in Plainfield, N.H.. Church was survived by his two sons, John and Creighton, and one daughter, Mabel. The largest collection of Churchill's papers is in the Baker Library at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. Other collections can be found at the Macmillian Company, the New York Public Library, and the University of Indiana. Sources Consulted for this Assignment: Biographical Dictionary of Southern Authors. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1978. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1998. Hamer,Philip M., ed., A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1961. Hart, James D., ed. The Oxford Companion to American Literature, 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Schneider, Robert W. Novelist To a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976. P. 27-8, 46, 163, 178, 295-7, 324-5. The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1968. Who Was Who in America. Chicago: The A.N. Marquis Company, 1950. Who Was Who in the Theatre. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1978.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Contemporary Reception History:
Contemporary reception for The Crisis was immediate and extensive. The earliest review is from the New York Times Saturday Review, dated June 1, 1901 (one week after the release of The Crisis). The remainder of the contemporary reviews date from June an
d July from that year. These reviews of Churchill's work can be found in many periodicals, some from Great Britain. Some of these include The Dial from Chicago, The New York Times and The Literary Digest from New York, and Literature, The Outlook, and
The Speaker (all from London). The reviews, for the most part, are positive. One of the best complements Churchill received was for his treatment of the history of the period. Hamilton W. Mabie stated that The Crisis: distinctly the most carefully studied and most convincing novel which has yet been written on the civil war.... (Mabie, 1901, 389).
William Morton Payne in The Dial felt that The Crisis, far more than other historical novels, would help the new generation understand the people of the Civil War generation and what they stood for. (Payne 1901, 26) A reviewer for The Academy felt that T
he Crisis " a wonderful imitation of the real thing". (Citation of The Academy in The Literary Digest 1901, 9) Another topic of praise for The Crisis was Churchill's portrayal of the setting and characters, both real and fictitious. Churchill's portrait of St. Louis before and during the war is praised for his portrayal of the local color and the setting where
people from both sides in the conflict lived and interacted. (The Sewanee Review Quarterly 1901, 376-7) A review in the June 29, 1901 Outlook applauds Churchill's characterization of The Crisis as:
...a faithful presentment of many intricate events and personalities; a whole gallery of characters, both private as well as public.... (The Outlook 1901, 697)
In Literature the reviewer felt that the characters could easily be befriended. (Literature 1901, 496).
By far the greatest complement Churchill received for The Crisis was his portrayal for the historical figures of Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and William T. Sherman. The reviewer for Literature found all three portraits "life-li
ke", especially Lincoln. (Literature 1901, 496) In The Outlook, Churchill is said to have made Lincoln "clear and credible". (The Outlook 1901, 698) Another reviewer stated that "The Crisis becomes a great book by virtue of its picture of Abraham Lincol
n". (Current Literature 1901, 659) General praise for The Crisis and Churchill's writing ability is especially noteworthy. It is stated in The Bookman that The Crisis is "an earnest and serious bit of work". (Citation of The Bookman in The Literary Digest 1901, 9) A review in Literatur
e stated that The Crisis "is as well executed a novel as we have come across for many a long day". (Literature 1901, 496) It is stated that The Crisis has "the glamour of a national epic. (Citation of The Speaker in The Literary Digest 1901, 9). One revi
ewer suggests that readers should place this book on the shelf next to Walt Whitman. (The Outlook 1901, 698) Another reviewer stated that Churchill "is probably the best writer of fiction now living on the other side of the Atlantic". (Literature 1901,
496) There were fewer negative comments made of The Crisis. However, that fact does not detract from the potent messages the critics presented to the reader. Some of the negative reviews criticize Churchill's writing in The Crisis. A reviewer for The Acad
emy called The Crisis "hackneyed". (Citation of The Academy in The Literary Digest 1901, 9) In The Sewanee Review Quarterly, the critic observed that the story interferes with the history being presented and that there are too many repetitions in the plo
t. (The Sewanee Review Quarterly 1901, 377) Other negative comments dealt with the characterization of the novel. A critic for The Independent felt that the characters were "commonplace and unconvincing." (Citation of The Independent in The Literary Digest 1901, 9). In The Outlook, Churchill is f
aulted for his enthusiastic presentation and explanation of his characters to the readers as "getting in the way" of them. (The Outlook 1901, 697). An interesting negative comment about The Crisis addressed the aspect of perspective. One critic felt that Churchill lived too close in time to the historical events that transpired in the novel for him to write a sufficiently objecti
ve novel. (The Sewanee Review Quarterly 1901, 375). Others disagreed, however. One reviewer believed that Churchill was a member of the proper younger generation to advance to the subject in the proper perspective. (Payne 1901, 25) Another reviewer be
lieved that Churchill lived far enough away from the "passions" of the period but close enough to "know them intimately". (Current Literature 1901, 659)

Mabie, H.W. Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement (1 June 1901): 389.
Payne, William Morton. Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. The Dial 31, No. 361 (1 July 1901): 25-6.
Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. Current Literature 30, no. 6 (June 1901): 659-60.
Reviews of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. The Academy, The Bookman, The Independent, and The Speaker cited in "Churchill's 'The Crisis' and The Critics" The Literary Digest 23, no. 1 (6 July 1901): 8-9.
Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. Literature 8, no. 190 (8 June 1901): 496.
Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. The Outlook 7, no. 178 (29 June 1901): 697-8.
Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. The Sewanee Review Quarterly 9, no. 3 (July 1901): 375-8.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Subsequent Reception History:
The record of the subsequent reception history of The Crisis is not very different from earlier reviews. The reviews for the post-1906 period are more positive than negative, with the negative minority having a smaller but just as important voice. The G
reat majority of these later reviews are found within larger articles about the author. Many of these reviewers critique Churchill's career as a whole and from this the opinions of The Crisis must be derived. Primarily the later positive reviews center on Churchill's sense of history and his characterization of famous individuals. Lloyd W. Griffin wrote that Churchill's historical novels are "well-rounded almost epic treatments of...vital segments of Ameri
can History." (Griffin 1948, 331) He also believed that Churchill's romantic fiction "embellished the heritage of American history." (Ibid., 332) J. Breckinridge Ellis wrote that Churchill's historical novels "are the best pictures from American histo
ry in our national gallery." (Ellis 1922, 517) Churchill "has reinforced his stories with solid documentation." (Van Doren 1921, 619) Like the earlier reviewers, Ernest E. Leisy felt that Churchill had the best portrayal of Abraham Lincoln in a civil wa
r novel. (Titus 1963, 50) Griffin also felt that Churchill did a superb job of picturing St. Louis in those days. (Griffin 1948, 333) Much of the negative criticism that these articles present deal with the characterizations of the fictional characters and his writing. Carl Van Doren wrote: ...the...lack of spiritual penetration and intellectual consistency which has kept Mr. Churchill from ever building a very notable realistic plot has kept him from ever creating any very memor
able characters. (Van Doren 1921, 620)
Griffin believed that a weakness in Churchill's historical novels is its "stilted, wooded dialog," that a lull in the action gives the reader sense that the characters are "manipulated puppets." (Griffin 1948, 332) Van Doren criticizes Churchill's wri
ting and ideas because he only followed popular trends of the time. His solution to problems in his books were "devised already" by history. (Van Doren 1921, 620) These negative views of The Crisis were in the minority. In a study of the reviews listed in The Book Review Digest, eighty-five percent were approving (Schneider 1976, 297) As with earlier reviewers, there were those who loved the book because they wer
e interested in the issues and ideas Churchill presented and smaller groups of those who found fault in the artistic quality of the presentation such as plot and characterization. (Schneider 1976, 297-8) However, one cannot stereotype any article as unif
ormly for and against The Crisis. Most articles have both good and bad things to say about this novel. After ninety-one years, The Crisis still has a positive effect on people. Kenneth S. Davis stated that this book "remains a 'favorite historical nov
el' of mine." He said that he could "still recall vividly the characters and issues with which it deals." ("My Favorite Historical Novel." American Heritage 1992, 87)

Ellis, J. Breckinridge. "Missourians Abroad -- No. 11, Winston Churchill." Missouri Historical Review 16, no. 4 (July 1922): 517-21.
Griffin, Lloyd W. "Winston Churchill, American Novelist." More Books 33, no. 9 (November 1948): 331-8.
"My Favorite Historical Novel." American Heritage 43, no. 6 (October 1992): 87.
Schneider, Robert W. Novelist To a Generation: The Life and Thought of WinstonChurchill. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1976.
Titus, Warren I. Winston Churchill. Twayne's United States Authors Series, ed. Sylvia E. Bowman, no. 43. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc ., 1963.
Van Doren, Carl. "Contemporary American Novelists, IV. Winston Churchill." The Nation 112, no. 2912 (27 April 1921): 619-21.

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Assignment #5: Critical Analysis The Success of Winston Churchill and The Crisis Winston Churchill and his Civil War novel The Crisis enjoyed great success at the beginning of this century. Many of his books were best sellers, however The Crisis sold extremely well. As a best seller, this work received great accolad
es from critics, veneration from the famous, and the honor of being placed on the stage and screen. What was the reason for the contemporary success of this historical novel of Mr. Churchill's? More importantly, has the popularity of this author and hi
s book (The Crisis) survived the past this fashionable period? If fame and popularity for this man and his work have been lost in later years, why have they? Have they survived recognition anywhere, no matter how small a niche Mr. Churchill and his book
s may be in? Have they been basically forgotten? The answer, as we may see, may be ambiguous. However, it is an important (and interesting) line of thought to explore. To best investigate the rationale for the success of Churchill and The Crisis, it is necessary to first illustrate the scope of these successes. During his career, Winston Churchill wrote ten novels. They sold on average 500,000 copi
es each. These novels went into fifty-four editions in the United States and they were translated into many foreign languages. (Schneider 1976, 297) In a listing of the most popular authors of fiction between 1900 and1925, Irving Harlow Hart ranked Wins
ton Churchill the highest in prominence. (Hart 1925, 619-20) Besides novels, Churchill also wrote three original plays, three poems, many articles for periodicals, and two non-fiction works. Two of his books were made into plays and three became motion
pictures. (Schneider 1976, 287) Through his success, Churchill met famous individuals such as Theodore Roosevelt and Winston Churchill of Britain. (Ibid, 58-9 and 61-2) The Crisis was a highly successful novel. As of 1975, The Crisis has sold 1,243,307 hardbound copies. (Hackett and Burke 1977, 26) It was an instant success. The first edition of more than 100,000 copies sold out in six days. (Titus 1963, 49) The Cri
sis was the best seller for 1901. (Hackett and Burke 1977, 65) Between 1901 and 1907, it was reprinted twenty-seven times. After 1910, there were eight reprintings. There were many other Macmillan editions (primary publisher) printed in various sizes,
theater editions, school formats, and paper novels. In addition, Grosset and Dunlap were printing editions. Many of these editions, including from Macmillan, have also been reprinted many times.(1) Many foreign editions were also printed. The Crisis h
as been referred to as "Churchill's best-selling, best-known work." (Titus 1963, 49) At the time of its orginal publication, Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt sent a letter to Churchill praising The Crisis. (Schneider 1976, 59) The Crisis has also adap
ted for the stage and screen as well as a "book-on-tape."(2) One of the reasons that the man and his novel were especially popular was due to the conditions of the publishing industry that made the wide production and distribution of his novels possible. The Industrial Revolution provided machinery that increased
the production of books. The development of the flatbed press and then the cylinder press before the Civil War helped transform publishing. The rotary press necessitated further inventions such as the development of continuous rolls of paper and typese
tting machines to handle the speed of these new high-speed presses. (Tebbel 1975, 655) In Churchill's time steps were taken to allow the further mass production of books. Many publishers began to centralize their book production, many using machines at
every step of the process. The manufacturing of paper was greatly increased due to the large popularity of fiction. The development of domestic lightweight paper around 1902 allowed for a lighter, easier to carry and share bestsellers. (Ibid, 659-60) (
3) By far it was the strong backing and support of Churchill's publisher, Macmillan, that provided much success for The Crisis and his other works. Led by George Platt Brett, Macmillan was transformed from a small agency into one of the largest publishing
houses in the United States. Churchill was supported by a company with huge financial interests and the reputation for publishing fine American, classical, and scholarly works. These include works by Jack London, Jonathan Swift, and Lord George Byron.
(Kurian 1975, 174) The distribution of The Crisis was also aided by the expanding market of reprints through the publishing house of Grosset and Dunlap. (Ibid, 132) There was a trend in book advertising that helped Churchill's books sell. This was the period when modern business methods of selling books first applied to book advertising. It was so successful that during this time many publishers increased their a
dvertising spending greatly. The romantic novel was commonly advertised in full-page features in magazines. Quotes about the book in the advertisements also appeared. Newspapers formed book departments in order in obtain book advertising. One example
is The New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement.(4) (Tebbel 1975, 158) Reviewers also helped sell Churchill's books. Critics both here and in Britain reviewed The Crisis in such periodicals as The Dial, The Literary Digest, Literature, The Outlook, and The New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement. (5) The reaction
of the reviewers towards The Crisis was "overwhelmingly favorable." (Schneider 1976, 47) Robert W. Schneider claims that part of the reason for the popularity of Churchill's novels was the favorable treatment of them by the critics. In a study of the r
eviews listed in the Book Review Digest, eighty-five percent were approving. (Ibid, 297) Winston Churchill and the reading public had a relationship that was very interactive. The public was very much an influence on the sales of Churchill's novels. Churchill's novels were written at the right time. Between 1890 and the First World War,
Americans were reading fiction at a manic pace. (Tebbel 1975, 170) It was pointed out in 1902 that American novels were the largest sellers in recent years. (Ibid, 171-2) Churchill's first writing came when historical romances were in vogue. (Hofstadt
er and Hofstadter 1950, 12) Albert Elmer Hancock wrote that Churchill was the "most notable writer in America of historical fiction." (Hancock 1904, 753) Churchill's writing occupied the attention of American readers more than any other author of this
period did. (Schneider 1962, 163) The Crisis was considered one of the most popular romances at that time. (Titus 1963, 144) Between 1901-1909 it was a best seller at 750,000 copies. (Schneider 1976, 297) Another factor in Churchill's success lied in his sense of history and that it had a positive effect on the public. Critics responded favorable to his careful and thorough research into history for his books. Critics felt that The Crisis was a result
of meticulous study. ("Churchill's 'The Crisis' and the Critics." The Literary Digest 1901, 8) H.W. Mabie wrote that The Crisis had "a strong impression of history." According to H.W. Mabie, Churchill's work was "the most carefully studied and the m
ost convincing novel?written on the civil war." (Mabie 1901, 389) In his studies before writing a novel, Churchill would pose a number of historical questions for himself. These astute questions indicated that Churchill had an historical sophistication
equal to contemporary professional historians. (Schneider 1976, 47) By far the most intriguing reason for Churchill's success was that he wrote for his generation. He spoke to the feelings of people who shared his generational experiences. This generation was the Progressive generation that rose out of the 1890's. Th
is generation rejected the business ethic and views of their predecessors. (Schneider 1962, 164) The youth condemned what they felt was civic corruption and vile business and industrial practices favored by many of the previous generation. Americans of
this period wanted someone who rejected materialism, upheld the values of honesty and patriotism, and condemned the abuses of capitalism. The epitome of these values was Theodore Roosevelt. Churchill admired and followed many of Roosevelt's beliefs of
activism to enact positive change and for bring honesty into civic life. Churchill felt a strong sense of American history and contempt for business. (Hofstadter and Hoftstadter 1950, 15) Many read Churchill because he provided them with characters that
supported family values over money. (Schneider 1962, 164) Churchill's Progressive views can be seen in his portrayal of villains and heroes in his novels. Churchill's villains were capitalists with no honor or ancestry. Heroes, on the other hand, were moral individuals who were descended from high-ranking f
amilies. (Ibid, 168-9) A good example of a villain from The Crisis is Eliphalet Hopper, a Northerner driven by greed and ambition. This character does not care which side wins the war as long as he makes money. (Titus 1963, 49) Northerner Steven Brice
is a good example of Churchill's ideal hero from The Crisis. Brice represents the sense of the aristocracy, one with a Puritan background who was not afraid to mingle with commoners. (Schneider 1976, 52) In The Crisis Steven is portrayed as a noble man
who saves the Southern heroine Virginia from the sad fate of a forced marriage with Hopper. Steven and Virginia symbolize the honorable ideal of unity between North and South. (Titus 1963, 48-9) Unfortunately, the popularity of Churchill and The Crisis did not survive for long. One possible reason is that the literary taste of Americans changed. The public, by the time Churchill was writing The Crossing, was buying fewer historical novels; the
ir taste was turning instead to interest in contemporary problems. (Schneider 1976, 96) Churchill, however, was able to survive because he was adept at adapting his writing to these changing literary trends. These were the problem novels. (Griffin 194
8, 331) An example of this type of novel is Coniston, where Churchill drew upon the political lore he learned while in the state capital Concord. With this book Churchill was able to advance his political views by writing for a national audience. He wa
s able to achieve what he could not in the New Hampshire statehouse. He was able to use his book as a "platform" to help him become more active in politics. (Blodgett 1974, 511-2) It is more likely that a much greater shift in society due to the First World War caused a decline in Churchill's popularity. The American public lost faith in the Progressive view that humans could create a society in light of human reason. Utopia se
emed to be an unrealistic hope for the future. America was now dominated by a skeptical post-war generation. Moreover, these feelings were greatly felt by Churchill himself who lost faith in his own ideas. Churchill retired around this time. (Schneider
1962, 178-9) With his retirement, Churchill passed from public recognition. (Titus 1963, 144-5) Today when one hears the name Winston Churchill, they most likely think of the former British Prime Minister. This is not a new mistake. A reviewer of The Crisis in the Chicago Chronicle wrote that this "great American novel" was "the work of the Engli
shman, Winston Churchill." (Schneider 1976, 63) Today, this confusion continues in such reputable institutions as the Bibliotheque nationale de France and businesses such as In each instance American Churchill is placed under British Churchi
ll's heading. The Crisis only survives today in very specialized niches. It appears that The Crisis continues to survive as a library-binding reprint in book form. (Books in Print, 1997-98 Supplement, 399) The other instances are sound recordings from 1984, 1988 (O
CLC Prism) and 1991 (; Internet; Accessed 22 April 1999). Sales of The Crisis have slowly waned since 1945. Hackett lists no increase in sales of The Crisis between 1965 and 1975. (Hackett 1967, 25 and 1977, 26) There is no further
non-specialty publishing after 1949. (OCLC Prism) Although The Crisis is not widely printed, it is still available through purchase from rare book dealers on web sites such as Bibliofind and reading at libraries such as the Library of Congress and Richmond Public Library. Winston Churchill and The Cris
is are not in high demand today. Despite this, Churchill and The Crisis are still remembered. Kenneth S. Davis mentioned it recently. ("My Favorite Historical Novel." American Heritage 1992, 87) Writers such as Robert W. Schneider and Warren I. Titus
who have composed extensive books about Churchill's life. Besides these facts, Churchill was an individual best remembered as a person of his generation and has been largely forgotten in modern times. The Crisis is a good example of turn-of-the-century
historical fiction. It should be at least be remembered for this instead of mostly forgotten like it is today.

(1) For sources for this publishing information, see Assignment #2 section, numbers 1,4, and 5. (2) See Assignment #2, number 12. (3) Norwood Press in Norwood, Massachusetts printed the first edition of The Crisis (See Assignment #1, number 12, verso of title page transcription). It is unclear if the publisher Macmillan (based in New York) did centralize their production. However,
they may have been able to cut costs (and increase production) by sending their work up north. (Tebbel 1975, 659) Perhaps they could have centralized their production for later printings, or enough work was done at Norwood Press to allow the mass product
ion of this novel in huge quantities to meet popular demand. The publication history of The Crisis may have spanned a transition period. Norwood Press is listed in a July 1895 edition of The Reference Directory of Booksellers, Stationers, and Printers o
f the United States and Canada although I could not, through browsing the shelves, find a listing for it in these types of directories later in the publication history of The Crisis. (Industrial Information Company of New Jersey 1895, 232) Although Tebbe
l states that lightweight paper began use around 1902, it is possible to infer its use with at least subsequent printings of The Crisis if not its use from the start. (4) For more information about magazine and newspaper advertising, see Assignment #2, numbers 9 and 11. (5) For more information about these reviews, see Assignment #4.

Book Sources:
Blodgett, Geoffrey. "Winston Churchill: The Novelist as Reformer." The New England Quarterly 47, no. 4 (December 1974): 495-517.
Books in Print, 1997-98 Supplement. New Providence, N.J.: R.R. Bowker, 1998.
"Churchill's 'The Crisis' and the Critics." The Literary Digest 23, no. 1 (6 July 1901): 8-9.
Griffin, Lloyd W. "Winston Churchill, American Novelist." More Books 33, no. 9 (November 1948): 331-8.
Hackett, Alice Payne. 70 Years of Best Sellers 1895-1965. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1967.
Hackett, Alice Payne, and James Henry Burke. 80 Years of Best Sellers: 1895-1975. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1977.
Hancock, Albert Elmer. "The Historical Fiction of Mr. Churchill." The Outlook 77, no. 13 (30 July 1904): 753-5.
Hart, Irving Harlow. "The Most Popular Authors of Fiction Between 1900 and 1925." The Publishers' Weekly 107, no. 8 (21 February 1925): 619-21.
Hofstadter, Richard, and Beatrice Hofstadter. "Winston Churchill: A Study in the Popular Novel." American Quarterly 2, issue 1 (Spring 1950) 12-28.
Kurian, George Thomas. The Directory of American Book Publishing: From Founding Fathers to Today's Conglomerates. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
Mabie, H.W. Review of The Crisis, by Winston Churchill. New York Times Saturday Book Review Supplement, 1 June 1901, 389.
"My Favorite Historical Novel." American Heritage 43, no. 6 (October 1992): 87.
The Reference Directory of Booksellers, Stationers, and Printers of the United States and Canada (July 1895). New York: Industrial Information Company of New Jersey: 1895.
Schneider, Robert W. "Novelist to a Generation: The American Winston Churchill." The Midwest Quarterly 3, no. 2 (January 1962): 163-79.
Schneider, Robert W. Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976.
Tebbel, John. A History of Book Publishing in the United States. Vol. 2, The Expansion of an Industry 1865-1919. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1975.
Titus, Warren I. Winston Churchill. Twayne's United States Authors Series, ed. Sylvia E. Bowman, no. 43. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1963.
Online Sources: Http://; Internet; Accessed 22 April 1999.
OCLC Prism.

Supplemental Material

Photograph of Churchill at His Home

Photograph of Churchill

Aditional Illustration from First Edition Crisis, New York: Macmillan Company, 1901.

Right Page of Two Page Movie Advertisement from The Moving Picture World 14 October 1916: 169.

Left Page of Two Page Movie Advertisement from The Moving Picture World 14 October 1916: 168.

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