Wiggin, Kate Douglas: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm
(researched by Keisha Godfrey)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Kate Douglas Wiggin. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1903. Copyright Statements: 1903 by Kate Douglas Riggs 1910 by Houghton, Mifflin, and Company 1917 by Houghton, Mifflin, and Company Parallel First Editions: In Spain: Rebeca de la granja Sol. Barcelona, Ediciones Hymsa, 1943. In Germany: Rebekka vom Sonnen-Bachof. Pumelin, Natalie, a.d. Engl., 1907. In England: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.London, Gay and Bird, 1907. Sources: National Union Catalog (pg. 577), First Edition, and 1946 copy of the work.

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

The first American edition is published in trade cloth binding.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

175 leaves [6][I-IX]X[1-3]4-22[23]24-30[31]32-42[43]44-48[49]50-62[63]64-72[73]74-82 [83]84-89[90]91-99[100]101-108[109]110-117[118]119-130[131]132-138[139]140-148[149] 150-158[159]160-170[171]172-179[180]181-190[191]192-200[201]202-210[211]212-223[224] 225-238[239]240-246[247]248-257[258]259-271[272]273-281[282]283-292[293]294-305[306] 307-314[315]316-322[323]324-327[5] Source: Gaskell, A New Introduction to Bibliography

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

Introductory Material Dedication: TO MY MOTHER Quote by Wordsworth Publisher's Advertisements: all books by Mrs. Wiggin and all books by Mrs. Wiggin and Miss Smith published by Houghton, Mifflin, and Company Source: First Edition

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Only illustration is on the title page. A picture of the brick house, flowers, trees and shrubs, and sky all done in olive green ink. Source: First Edition

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

Presentation of Text on Page: Wide margins contribute to the ease of reading and the presentation is attractive. The type size is a little small but plain. The songs, poems, and quotes inset in the type are extremely small however. The book is not well printed however as the boldness of the type varies from section to section in certain areas and the width of the type varies due to a slight slanting in the printing of the text. Measurement of Page: 7.25"x 4.75" Measurement of Text: 5"x 3.25" Size of type (20 lines): 89R The chapters are numbered in roman numerals and titled. The Table of Contents, text, and chapter titles are all in serif type. Of Sunnybrook Farm, on the title page only, is written in italics. The Riverside Press, Cambridge (on title page) and By Mrs. Wiggin, and By Mrs. Wiggin and Miss Smith (on publisher's flyleaf) are printed in bold face gothic type. The title, in all four places, and the word Contents on the back of the Table of Contents is written in bold. Rebecca is written in all capitals and in bold at the top of all text pages except the chapter pages. Dust Jacket: The dust jacket is in two pieces, paper covered by wax paper. The wax paper has yellowed with age. The paper, of construction paper quality, is a teal color that may be faded. Together they give the appearance of being olive green. All of the lettering of the jacket is in navy blue without illustrations. The topography of the front and spine is sans serif. The front states the title and author. The spine has title, author, price ($1.25), and publisher's name. The back of the jacket is an advertisement of other books by Kate Douglas Wiggin and states the publisher's name. The jacket is very fragile, in several pieces, and has not stood up well over time. Source: First Editon, Gaskell's New Introduction to Bibliography (pages 9,17,20).

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

It is smooth edged paper that is yellowing with age, especially along the edges and near the binding. There are no tears. The very first and last endpapers are of heavier paper than the rest of the book. The back free endpaper is discolored on the copy that has the dustjacket,from being pressed against it. Source: First Edition

11 Description of binding(s)

The binding has a hardbound letterpress binding. It is an edition binding with the endpapers holding the cover on, probably done using a casing-in machine. Greenish clothe with calico-texture grain which is not embossed. The front cover and spine are hand-painted. Cover: The first picture is of a two-story brick house, with a blue sky with clouds, surrounded by trees and flowers. The shrubs and trees are indicated by an absence of paint. Then the title and author's name is written. The second picture is of a brook winding down a gentle hill with grass, trees, clouds, and sky. Each picture is blocked around in olive green, the same color as the title and author, forming a square frame. The house and flowers are reddish orange, the brook and sky are light blue, the grass and the shutters on the house are olive green, the clouds, window outlines and house gutters are white, and the roof is gray. Spine: At the top there is a horizontal line, a illegible design, another horizontal line, a painting of flowers, a horizontal line, the author's name, a horizontal line, a painting of vines, a horizontal line, the publisher's name, and another horizontal line. Back Cover: Blank. Transcription of Spine: |[rule 30mm]|[rule 30mm]|[rule 30mm]|KATE|DOUGLAS| WIGGIN|[rule 30mm]|[rule 30mm]|[rule30mm]|HOUGHTON|MIFFLIN & CO. |[rule 30mm] Transcription of Front Cover: |REBECCA|OF|SUNNYBROOK FARM|KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN Sources: First Edition, Gaskell's New Introduction to Bibliography (pg243,239), Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology (a database)

12 Transcription of title page

recto: |REBECCA|Of Sunnybrook|Farm|BY| KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN |[rule 72mm]|[rule 72mm]|BOSTON AND NEW YORK|HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY |The Riverside Press, Cambridge|1903 verso: |COPYRIGHT 1903 BY KATE DOUGLAS RIGGS|ALL RIGHTS RESERVED|Published October 1903 Sources: First Edition, Gaskell's New Introduction to Bibliography (pg. 243, 327-328)

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

Bowdoin College Library Brunswick, ME Source: Subject Collections 7th Edition, Volume 2 M-Z

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

Dedication on free front end paper written in cursive |Yours most Sincerely |Kate Douglas Wiggin|To Edward Lemogne|from Mrs. Wiggin's husband|March 22 |1904(in copy without dust jacket). Bookplate inside front cover |Hic Fructus Virtutis|Clifton Waller Barrett (edition with dust jacket has the same book plate). Typography by The Riverside Press, Cambridge

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

Houghton Mifflin Company 1910-Boston 327 pgs. 19.4 cm Holiday Edition-Bound in Blue Cloth stamped in Gold Colored front plates $1.50 Autographed by the author-limited to 500 copies Houghton Mifflin Company 1911-Boston 19cm Frontpiece is colored Holiday Edition Houghton Mifflin Company 1917-Boston 341 pgs. 22cm 12 leaves of plates:ill.(some colored) Autographed-edition limited to 500 signed and numbered copies Houghton Mifflin Company 1917-Boston 341 pgs. 19cm ill. Quillcote Edition Houghton Mifflin Company 1925-Boston 355 pgs. 21cm ill.(some colored) by Helen Mason Grose Riverside Bookshelf Series Houghton Mifflin Company 1931-Boston 341pgs. 21.5cm ill. by Helen Mason Grosse The Riverside Library Sources: Books in Print Bibliofind.com Amazon.com National Union Catalog Pre 1956 WorldCat

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

Houghton, Mifflin, and Company 1904-Boston 327 pgs. 19cm later reissued in 1967 Grosset & Dunlap 1903-New York 327 pgs. 20cm pictorial green cloth later reissued in 1950 as a Thrushwood Gay and Bird 1903-London 327 pgs. Garland 1976-New York 327 pgs. 19cm reprint of the 1903 ed. published by Houghton Mifflin Source: Books in Print Bibliofind.com Amazon.com National Union Catalog Pre 1956 WorldCat

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

Grosset & Dunlap 1910-New York abridged by Alice Thorne ill. by Miriam Troop later reissued in 1960 Grosset & Dunlap 1910-New York 327 pgs. photoplay edition featuring Marian Nixon EP photos from Mary Pickford movie Grosset & Dunlap 1917-New York 342 pgs. 19cm 1917-reprint edition orange cloth, black lettering and decoration later reissued in 1928 later reissued in 1946 as a Thrushwood Book later reissued in 1976 as a New Thrushwood Book Grosset & Dunlap 1964-New York 320 pgs. 18cm Tempo Books Ed. Collins aka HarperCollins World aka Harper Festival 1958-256 pgs. 16 cm abridged Laurel and Gold series; no. 189 1999-New York, London 80 pgs. 16 cm Chapter Book Charmer Charm attached to front cover Scholastic Book Services 1973-New York 176 pgs. ill. 18 cm Scholastic Inc. 1988-New York 276 pgs. 20 cm Apple Classic TOR 1999-New York 241 pgs. 18 cm A Tom Doherty Associates Book Tor Kids; Melia 1999-New York, Maidenhead 288 pgs. 18 cm Longmeadow Pr. 1993-Stamford, Conn. 234 pgs. 4 pgs. of plates: colored. Ill. 24 cm ill. by Peter Fiore Buccaneer Books 1984-New York 320 pgs. 23 cm 1981- Airmont Publishing Company, Incorporated 1967-New York 255 pgs. 19 cm Whitman Pub. Co. 1960-Racine, Wisc. 282 pgs. ill. 20 cm pictorial boards Random House 1959-New York 250 pgs. ill. 20 cm Shirley Temple Edition Watermill Press 1981-Mahwah, N.J. 309 pgs. 18 cm A Watermill Classic Macmillian 1st edition thus 1962-New York 301 pgs. col.ill. 24 cm pictorial cloth, dust jacket at least three printings of this edition there was a second impression of the first printing The Macmillian Classics Series Ill. by Lawrence Beall Smith Afterword by Clifton Fadiman Reissued in 1966 LRS 1999-Los Angeles 352 pgs. 25 cm. Large print LRS large print Heritage Series Sharp, bold, extra large 18 point type World International 1990-200 pgs. 8 pgs. of plates Classic Library Series Morrow 1994-New York 291 pgs. ill. some col. 24 cm. Books of Wonder Series Worthington Press 1993-St. Petersburg, FL 287 pgs. 18 cm Siver Elm Classic Children's Classics; Distributed by Outlet Book Co. 1993-New York, Avenal, N.J. 234 pgs. col. ill. 25 cm ill. by Peter M. Fiore Golden Press 1965-Racine, Wisconsin 254 pgs. Ill. by June Goldsborough Golden Illustrated Classics University Publishing House, Incorporated 1997-175 pgs. Smithmark Publishers, Incorporated 1995 a combination of Rebecca and Black Beauty Playmore, Incorporated Publishers 1995-vol 48 Great Illustrated Classics Series Third grade-Sixth grade William Morrow & Company, Incorporated 1994,1924-384 pgs. ill. by Helen M. Grose Books of Wonder Series PAGES Publishing Group 1993-288 pgs. Troll Communications L.L.C. 1992,1988-320 pgs. Deluxe Watermill Classic Series NAL/Dutton 1991 Ace Books 1987 The Putnam Publishing Group 1983 Thrushwood Books Harmony Raine & Company 1981-259 pgs. Western Publishing Company, Incorporated 1977 Deluxe Illustrated Classics Series London: Gay and Hancock, Ltd. 1908-London 347 pgs. front ill. 20 cm ill. By Patten Wilson Cheaper Ed. Inscribed by author Puffin 1994,1985-London 276 pgs. 20 cm Puffin classics Also published in America in 1986,1995 New English Library 1977-London 208 pgs. 18cm Gay and Bird 1903-London first edition reissued in 1904 B. Tauchnitz 1904-Leipzig 279 pgs 15cm. Collection of British Authors. Tauchnitz edition. Vol. 3740 Copyright edition A. and C. Black 1929-London 276 pgs. 20cm new edition(reset)1929 later reissued in 1980 Wordsworth Editions, Limited 1994-Hartfordshire, England 208 pgs. 20cm Wordsworth Classics Later reissued in 1998 Sources: Books in Print Bibiofind.com Amazon.com National Union Catalog Pre 1956 WorldCat

6 Last date in print?

This book is currently in print as of 1999. Source: Books in Print British Library Catalog Whittaker's Books in Print

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)


8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

For Houghton Mifflin Company First Three Weeks: 50,000 copies Dec. 12, 1903: 75,000 copies April 16, 1904: 120,000 copies April 23, 1904: 134,000 copies Total Figures 1903: 1,128,00 copies 1904: 1, 373,288 copies (combined hardbound/paperbound) 1904: 1,357,714 copies ( hardbound only) Sources: Hackett's 50 Years of Bestsellers Hackett's 60 Years of Bestsellers Hackett's 70 Years of Bestsellers Hackett's 80 Years of Bestsellers Publisher's Weekly Advertisements

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Advertisements from Publisher's Weekly Sept. 12, 1903 pg. 433 READY EARLY IN OCTOBER Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm By Kate Douglas Wiggin. $1.25. This story will rival the most popular books of the Autumn. It is written in Mrs. Wiggin's inimitable style and brims with humor from cover to cover. Dec. 5, 1903 "Rebecca" is undoubtedly the most widely popular book of the season. 50,000 copies were called for in three weeks. Reviews have been received from 140 papers. The book has been advertised 270 times. Dec.12, 1903 "Rebecca" has been advertised repeatedly in 20 different magazines, the combined circulation of which aggregate 2, 305,050-In many religious papers with a circulation of 834,875-In daily newspapers with a total circulation of 2,648,284. The total circulation of all these mediums is 5,788,209. April 23, 1904 Some Interesting Facts About Mrs. Wiggin's Rebecca ITS POPULARITY Rebecca has appeared constantly, since its publication, on the list of the six bestselling books in New York. 134 THOUSAND copies have been required to fill the demand in this country and abroad. Sept. 24, 1904 There is a constant demand for MRS. WIGGIN'S REBECCA The most popular book of the past year. $1.25 Nov. 26, 1910 THE FIRST ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF MRS. WIGGIN'S REBECCA This book has already virtually attained the distinction of a classic as a story of American girlhood. According to Thomas Bailey Aldrich, "Rebecca is just the nicest child in American literature." This holiday edition contains a special preface and a delightful frontpiece in color by F.C. Yohn. Many artistic reproductions of photographs taken from the play, which was so successful last winter, have also been included. $1.50 Source: Publisher's Weekly 1903-1911

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Albert Grumble J.H. Remick-1914 New York-Musical Score 1 score(5pgs.):35 cm Song for voice and piano Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Seymour A. Brown J.H. Remick & Co.-1914 New York-Book 5 pgs.music: 35 cm Sheet music There is also a Rebecca doll for sale on Amazon.com There is another series of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm books written by Eric Wiggin and published by Evangel Publishing House. Sources: Books in Print Bibliofind.com Amazon.com WorldCat

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Film: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Mary Pickford Film Corp. Dist. Aircraft Pictures Corp. Sept. 22, 1917 6 reels Dir. Marshall Neilan, photographed by Walter Stradlina. Starring Mary Pickford, Eugene O'Brien, Majorie Daw, Josephine Crowell Black and white silent film with a musical score added This film was reissued in June of 1920. It was remade in 1932 by Fox, directed by Alfred Santell. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. March 18, 1938 9 reels Dir. Allan Dwan Suggested by the novel. Starring Shirley Temple The only things taken from the book are a few minor instances, the character of the little girl, and the title. This film was "launching [Temple] on a flying start to maintain another year as No.1 celluloid revenue producer." This film has been repeatedly reissued by several different movie companies. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm-Original Screenplay Twentieth Century-Fox 1937-Book 154 leaves 30 cm mimeographed film script; numbered shots, dialogue and brief action, includes blue revision leaves dated through 9-15-37. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm-Final Script Karl Tunberg Twentieth Century-Fox 1937-Book 159 leaves 28 cm Plays: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, a state o' Maine play in four acts By Kate Douglas Wiggin and Charlotte Thompson New York, S.French 1909-French's standard library edition 120 pgs. ill. Based upon the novel and upon the New Chronicles of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, a state o' Maine play in four acts By Kate Douglas Wiggin and Charlotte Thompson Typewritten, cut for acting, with a few stage directions, contains property plots Republic Theatre(New York, N.Y.) Week beginning Monday evening, November 14, 1910ÖKlaw and Erlanger production of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, by Kate Douglas Wiggin and Charlotte Thompson, adapted from Mrs. Wiggin's Rebecca books. New York-1910 Publisher: Frank V. Strauss 32 pgs. 23cm Belasco Theater program for the week of Nov. 14-19, 1910. Sam Coit Manuscript papers 13v. 5cm or smaller Correspondence to and from Coit regards auditions, rehearsals, theater openings and congratulations on performances, actor's strikes, politics, N.Y. theater scene and business connected with the Actor's Equity Association and other organizations, also personal and family matters. Includes letters from author Kate Wiggin discussing Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 13 scrapbook volumes, also misc. materials including photographs, professional and personal correspondence, business contracts, essays on theater by Estelle H. Davis, various journal issues and clippings connected with Coit's career as a stage and film actor. Dating from 1900-1932 and arranged chronologically, the scrapbooks contain photos, articles, reviews, programs, playbills, corespondence, etc. relating to Coit's roles in numerous productions including Quo Vadis, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, The education of Mr. Pipp, The show stop, Young America, Lightnin', The nut farm, Soldiers of fortune(film) and many others. The photos include portraits of Coit, the actor in costume and streetwear, group photos with cast members and informal pictures of family and friends; also three pencil sketches of Coit. Computer: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Project Gutenberg 1996 Champaign, IL machine-readable data ftp uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu The classic series[series1] AV Concepts, Long Island N.Y. 1980, 1998 machine-readable data 5 computer disks and 1 user's manual(6 leaves) included with White Fang, Little Women, Swiss Family Robinson, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Recordings/Books on Tape: Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1997 sound recording 6 sound cassettes (8hrs.) + 1 book(276 pgs. 20cm) narrated by Barbara Carusco Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1991-Washington, D.C. Audio Book Contractors 5 sound cassettes narrated by Flo Gibson Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1993-Spokane, WA Books in Motion 6 sound cassettes(8.1 hours) dramatic reading by Shaela Conner Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1988-Salt Lake City, Utah Audio Books on Cassette 5 sound cassettes performed by Rita R. Wright Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1989-Mahwah, N.J. Troll Associates 1 sound cassette + 4 identical pbk. Books readalong Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1987,1999-Westlake Village, CA Hear-A-Book 2 sound cassettes abridged edition Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1980 Caedmon 1 disc. Reader-Julie Hams Thirties Movie Musicals of Harry Revel Harry Revel JJA 1981 Recording, 2 sound discs A Box Office Production ( from the Shirley Temple version) Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Edison 1914-Orange, N.J. Recording, 1 cylinder: 160 rpm The Songs of Shirley Temple's Films IMP France-1997 Reconding-3 sound discs Music for Children Time Life Records 1980-Chicago, IL Recording, 1 sound disc Great Moments of Music v.16 Series Compilations/Related: Bring the Classics to Life Edcon Long Island, N.Y. 1995,1992 Book 35v. ill. 28cm A compilation of children's classics including Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Growing up female in the home female socialization and romantic idealism in Little Women, What Katy Did, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, and Anne of Green Gables 1983 Book 33 leaves:28cm Mary Seneker Kissel Thesis-Kansas State University The Classic American Children's Story: novels of the golden age Jerome Griswold New York-1996,1992 Penguin Books Originally published under title: Audacious Kids Boys and Girls of Bookland Nora Archibald Smith 1923-New York D.Mckay 100 pgs. 10 leaves of plates: col. ill. 32cm compilation of children's stories May We Recommend; Six Radio Plays Ian G. Ball 1959-London Longmans 81 pgs. Marion MacWilliam-joint author Sources: Books in Print Bibiofind.com Amazon.com National Union Catalog Pre 1956 WorldCat The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in Feature Films, 1911-1920 vol. F1 The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in Feature Films 1931-1940 vol. F3

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Braille: American Printing House for the Blind 1931-Louisville, KY 3v. of braille; 29cm Dell Pub. Co. 1986-New York 252 pgs. 24cm A Dell Yearling Classic. Braille. Los Angeles, Calif.: Braille Institute of America Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm level1 Laura Machynski Edcon 1988-Long Island, NY 72 pgs ill. 28cm Braille. Utica N.Y. : Mohawk Valley Braille Transcribers 2v. 115 pgs. Chinese: Title: Ch'ing hsiu ch'iao chia jen Edition: Ch'u pan Place: T'ai-pei shih Publisher: Hsiao ch'ang shu fang 1993-332 pgs. 21cm Series: Hsiao ch'ang wen hsueh ming tso; 7 Spanish: Rebeca de la granja Sol. Barcelona Edicciones Hymsa 1943 German: Rebekka vom Sonnen-Bachof. Pumelin, Natalie, a.d. Engl, 1907. Sources: Books in Print Bibiofind.com Amazon.com National Union Catalog Pre 1956 WorldCat

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A


15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

New Chronicles of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 1907 More about Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm( alt. title in England) Sources: The Whole Story: 3000 Years of Sequels & Sequences Compiled by John E. Simkin 1996 pg. 1196

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Kate Douglas Wiggin was the "Houghton Mifflin gold-mine" according to an editor, Robert N. Linscott (Tebbel 257). It all began on September 28, 1856 in Philadelphia when Wiggin was born. Her mother was Helen Elizabeth Dryer Smith; originally from a well-to-do family in Maine. Her father, Robert Noah Smith, had a bachelor's degree from Brown University and a law degree from Harvard University. He died suddenly on a business trip when Wiggin was three. Wiggin also had a sister, Nora Archibald Smith. Shortly after Smith's death, the mother married a distant cousin, Dr. Albion Bradbury, and the family moved to the rural town of Hollis, Maine. Mrs. Bradbury had a son. Kate Wiggin was an avid reader in childhood and her two biggest influences were Charles Dickens and William Woodsworth. Wiggin attended the district school in Hollis, the brick school in Buxton, and at the age of thirteen the Gorham Female Seminary. She then attended the Morison Academy. In 1873, when Kate was seventeen, the family moved to Santa Barbara, California due to the stepfather's ill health. In 1876, Dr. Bradbury died and left the family penniless due to bad land speculation. The two sisters went to work. Kate became the church organist. In the fall of 1876, at the age of 20, Kate wrote and sold her first story "Half a Dozen Housekeepers" based on her experiences at Gorham. It was sold to St. Nicholas magazine for $150. In 1877 Kate met Mrs. Carolina M. Severance, an advocate for reform. She interested Kate in the kindergarten movement. This was the movement to establish public kindergartens in the United States. Kate then attended the yearlong training school for kindergarten teachers. She set up a small kindergarten, The Swallow's Nest. In the summer of 1878 Kate was chosen to be the teacher of the Silver Street Kindergarten, the first free kindergarten west of the Rocky Mts. In December of 1881 Wiggin married a childhood friend, Samuel Bradley Wiggin. Kate turned the school over to her sister but continued to supervise and train new teachers. She moved to New York in 1885 but remained involved with teaching. In September 1889, Samuel Wiggin died suddenly. May 24, 1890 Kate and two friends sailed to tour England and the continent. She gathered material for many of her books. Due to traveling for public relations and teaching, Wiggin suffered a total collapse in 1892 and was admitted to a private hospital. In 1893 Kate purchased Quillcote, an estate in Hollis, Maine. In 1894, Kate met George Christopher Riggs on another cruise and they were engaged when the boat docked in England. The wedding took place in All Saints Church in New York on March 30, 1895. Late in 1903, while in a New York hospital recovering from an illness. Wiggin dreamed of Rebecca Randall. During her convalescence Wiggin wrote Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Kate Wiggin completed her autobiography My Garden of Memory early in August of 1923. She then died in a nursing home at Harrow-on-the-Hill, England on August 24, 1923. Her body was cremated and Riggs scattered her ashes at Quillcote. He then erected a Celtic cross with the inscription from Hans Christian Anderson, "The song is never ended" (DLB 380-393). Wiggin's sister appears to have been her editor and she dealt directly with Edward Rittenhouse Houghton, her publisher (Tebbel 256). Her papers are located at Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick Maine (Subject 2400). Other Works by Kate Douglas Wiggin: The Story of Patsy: A Reminiscence (1889), The Bird's Christmas Carol (1887), A Summer in a Cañon: A California Story (1889), The Story Hour: A Book for the Home and Kindergarten (1890) with Smith, Timothy's Quest: A Story for Anybody Old or Young (1890), Children's Rights: A Book of Nursery Logic (1892), Polly Oliver's Problem: A Story for Girls (1893), A Cathedral Courtship and Penelope's English Experiences (1893), Froebel's Gifts (1895) with Smith, The Village Watch-Tower (1895), Froebel's Occupations (1896) with Smith, Kindergarten Principles and Practice(1896) with Smith, Marm Lisa (1896), Nine Love Songs and a Carol (1896), Penelope's Experiences in Scotland (London 1898) republished as Penelope's Progress (1898), Penelope's English Experiences (1901), Penelope's Irish Experiences (1901), The Diary of a Goose Girl (1902), Half-a-dozen Housekeepers (1903), The Affair at the Inn (1904) with others, A Village Stradivarius (1904), Rose o' the River (1905), Finding a Home (1907), The Old Peabody Pew: A Christmas Romance of an Old Country Church (1907), New Chronicles of Rebecca (1907), Susanna and Sue (1909), Mother Carey's Chickens (1911), Robinetta (1911) with others, A Child's Journey with Dickens (1912), The Story of Waitstill Baxter (1913), The Bird's Christmas Carol: Dramatic Version (1913) with Helen Ingersoll, Bluebeard: A Musical Fantasy(1914), The Girl and the Kingdom: Learning to Teach (1915), Penelope's Postscripts: Switzerland, Venice, Wales, Devon, Home (1915), The Romance of a Christmas Card (1916), Ladies in Waiting (1919), My Garden of Memory: An Autobiography (1923), The Quilt of Happiness (1923), Creeping Jenny and Other New England Stories (1924), Love by Express: A Novel of California (1924), A Thorn in the Flesh: A Monologue (1925), The Spirit of Christmas (1927), A Thanksgiving Retrospect; or, Simplicity of Life in Old New England (1928), The Writings of Kate Douglas Wiggin, 9 volumes (1917). Sources: Tebbel, John. A History of Book Publishing In The United States Vol. II The Expansion of an Industry 1865-1919. New York and London: R.R. Bowker, 1975. Subject Collections, Vol. 2 M-Z. 7th ed. New Providence, New Jersey: R.R. Bowker. 1993. Moss, Anita. "Kate Douglas Wiggin." Dictionary of Literary Biography vol. 42 American Writers for Children Before 1900. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1985. 380-393.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

All contemporary reviews of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm were highly favorable. The novel has become one of the classics of children's literature. This is because of its humor, naturalness, and fully realized characters according to critics. Even contemporaries of Wiggin loved the book. Mark Twain called the book "beautiful and moving and satisfying." Wiggin also received letters of tribute from Francis Hodgson Burnett, Mary Mapes Didge, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Sarah Orne Jewett, Jack London, and many others (DLB 383-394). "Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggins seems to have repeated her 'Penelope' success with 'Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm'. While Mrs. Wiggin's work is marked by a note of pathos, witness 'The Bird's Christmas Carol' the touch of humor predominates, and it is humor that greases the axle on which the world revolves. (The Critic 389) "The thousand pitfalls that lie in wait for those that are valorous enough to attempt to picture the life of a child are triumphantly avoided by Mrs. Wiggin in this really inspired little biography"(Dunbar 652-53). "the dominant quality in the book is its humor and still unintermittenly funny as it is, the fun is never overdone"(Dunbar 652-53). "it is the perfect naturalness of the story that makes it so appealing?what makes Rebecca human and adorable are her delightful inconsistencies"(Dunbar 652-53). "There are many points in Mrs. Rigg's(her married name) handling of the story which lure one to comparison of her method with that of the masters in fiction"(The Atlantic Monthly 858-60). "have the genuine accent of life"(The Atlantic Monthly 858-60). "not only is the character of Rebecca skillfully portrayed, but the minor personages are also well drawn"(Ford 652-3). "Mrs. Wiggin has done nothing better than this for a long time"(Ford 652-3). "'Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm' was one of the most talked about books of 1903"(NY Times 16). Although the reviews are all favorable, they must be viewed subjectively. Almost all the publications reviewing books at the time are all produced by publishing houses. The most favorable review is from The Atlantic Monthly, a Houghton Mifflin publication. The truest test of the novel is the fact that it is currently in print. Sources: The Critic 43 (1903): 389. Dunbar, Olivia H. The Critic 43 (1903): 570 The Atlantic Monthly A Magazine of Literature, Science, Art, and Politics XCII (1903): 858-60. Ford, M.K. The Bookman 18 (1904): 652-3 Book Review Digest 1905,1906,1907 Readers Guide to Periodical Literature MLA Bibliography Moss, Anita. "Kate Douglas Wiggin." Dictionary of Literary Biography vol.42 American Writers for Children Before 1900. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1985. 380-393.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

This novel is considered to be one of Wiggin's very best. The rest of her novels were not received favorably when compared to Rebecca. One reviewer stated that "Rose o' the River would have been a good first book but suffered in comparison (NY Times 635). "The New Chronicles of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm" was considered to be more stilted than Rebecca. One reviewer suggested that this was because readers now knew to expect the unexpected from the heroine, Rebecca (NY Times 16). This book has also been discussed in scholarly circles. "It is an attractive, amusing portrait, interesting for what it says about the qualities of heart and mind that Wiggin (and many of her contemporaries) admired in children, interesting, too, for what she saw as reasonable expectations for a girl of such qualities."(MacLeod) This novel is believed to have followed in the tradition set by Louisa May Alcott. These writers "created a matriarchal society-a female utopia." It is thought that they assumed a power of womanhood not found in their society in order to structure a fictional world where a girl could learn to survive, by assimilating the proper values. The novel contains the only example of a man without any womanly qualities, but does also contain the stereotypical feminized man. Some examples of the womanly qualities are crying, caring about children, and knowing how to keep house. These books, including Little Women, Five Little Peppers, and Anne of Green Gables, "contain subversive elements to the nineteenth-century cult of domesticity." (Kornfield 69-75) Sources: The Bookman 22 (1906): 494. Gilder, Jeanette L. "Seeing Rebecca with Kate Douglas." Ladies Home Journal 28 (August 1911): 11,42. The New York Times 30 September 1905: vol.10 pg635 Saturday Literary Review. The New York Times 13 April 1907: vol 12 pg 233 Saturday Literary Review. The Outlook 81 (1905): 711. Kornfield, Eve and Susan Jackson. "The Female Bildungsroman in Nineteenth-Century America: Parameters of a Vision." Journal of American Culture 10 (Winter 1987): 69-75 MacLeod, Anne Scott. Twentieth Century Children's Writers 2nd Edition St. Martin's Press, New York 1983. Book Review Digest 1905,1906,1907 Readers Guide to Periodical Literature MLA Bibliography Moss, Anita. "Kate Douglas Wiggin." Dictionary of Literary Biography vol.42 American Writers for Children Before 1900. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1985. 380-393.

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Rebecca Rowena Randall won the hearts of readers everywhere with her fantastic poetry and her selfless desire to help those less fortunate than herself. She is the appealing heroine from Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. This novel has an amazing history. It began as a dream by the author, Kate Douglas Wiggin. It was a bestseller in 1904 and remains a dearly remembered childhood memory to readers today. It was first printed in 1903 and is still currently in print as of 1999. It was adapted into two films and a play. Rebecca was popular with all the critics when the novel was first released and continues to be so. There are many reasons why this book has become so central in American culture. The most important ones are the public persona of the book's author, the popular genre of books at this time, and the public's love of nostalgia. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm is an engaging story of Rebecca's life while living with her two aunts in the brick house. Rebecca is the second eldest girl of seven children. She is a dreamer and an enabler of those dreams. She is sent to live with her mother's two maiden aunts in Riverboro. This is so she can receive a good education and be less of a burden on her fatherless family. One of her aunts, Jane, is gentle and kind. Aunt Matilda however is harsh and domineering. Rebecca gets in trouble constantly, as when she throws her umbrella in the well as an act of contrition. She has misbehaved and feels that she must throw her favorite pink parasol down the well. The umbrella jams the winding mechanism of the well and well must later be repaired. Rebecca is also very dramatic and loves to perform skits and write poetry. She later graduates at the top of her class from the academy and is offered her choice of teaching positions. She instead returns to her mother's farm to care for her injuries resulting from a bad fall and to run the farm. Then when her mother has recovered she once again makes plans to teach. Then Aunt Matilda dies and leaves the brick house to her. Rebecca's charms won over her aunt in the end. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm has a storyline with many of the classic elements that appeal to the reading public. Kate Douglas Wiggin led a fascinating life that contributed to the popularity of the book. She was the founder of the first public kindergarten west of the Rocky Mountains. She worked tirelessly for many years to promote the movement to establish public kindergartens. She was consulted in the training of teachers and inspected kindergarten facilities all over the United States. She even began writing to raise money for the kindergarten she established, the Silver Street Kindergarten. She was well known by women everywhere, even in South America. She wrote the play version of one of her novels, "The Old Peabody Pew" at the request of a ladies club in South America. She toured the country the majority of the year. She attended church meetings, ladies clubs, etc. reading and speaking of her books. She gave interviews to many magazines and literary organs, including the Ladies Home Journal and Bookman. She was photographed and written about in society columns. She even allowed interviews/tours of her home, Quillcote. She wrote most of her stories with characters gleaned from the classroom and personal experiences in her life. The teacher that is such a mentor to Rebecca is based on a teacher that was a mentor to Wiggin. Most critics agree that her characters are so realistic and human. Mark Twain called the book "beautiful and moving and satisfying." Wiggin also received letters of tribute from fellow authors Frances Hodgson Burnett, Mary Mapes Dodge, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Sarah Orne Jewett, Jack London, and many others (DLB Kate Douglas Wiggin also spent a great deal of time in Europe. Many of her later books, including the Penelope series, are travelogues of Europe. Some claimed Wiggin to be the ambassador between England and the United States. Her books, including Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, were immensely popular overseas. After World War I she was honored by the New York Kindergarten Association for her years of service. She was also invited by the San Francisco Examiner, as one of six most distinguished women in the world, to attend the Panama Pacific International Exposition (DLB). She wrote about experiences that people all over the world could relate to. Kate Douglas Wiggin's pubic persona contributed to the bestselling status of her novel. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm fit into the popular genre of nostalgia books at the turn of the century. Little Women, The Five Little Peppers and How They Grew, and Anne of Green Gables were all bestselling novels during this time period. They all have elements in common. All of the authors were strong women who either did not marry or were separated from their husbands for long periods of time. Wiggin was separated from her husband for months at a time due to touring for her books, the kindergarten movement, and health reasons. None of these authors had children. Wiggin said that her characters were her children. The main characters of all these novels are women. Fathers and/or male authority figures are noticiable lacking due to either death or absence. Rebecca's father is in fact dead. The male figures present in these novels are feminized. The only exception is in Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. The thief is portrayed as totally masculine. But the stagecoach driver and Mr. Aladdin fit into this generalization. When Rebecca first meets Mr. Aladdin he introduces himself as the woman of the house and buys 300 bars of soap from her! The stagecoach driver mothers Rebecca and cries over her poetry. The heroines must face some obstacle that entails then putting their life on hold. Rebecca must put off her teaching career to care for her mother, siblings, and the farm. Then she has to hasten to her aunt's deathbed before finally starting the rest of her life. It is evident that all of these novels contain the same elements. Some critics believe that these books were a form of rebellion by their authors. They were empowering their female heroines with freedoms that they themselves did not possess (Kornfield). Wiggin actually did have some involvement with the suffrage movement. Her mentor who first encouraged her work with the movement to establish kindergartens in America was a suffragette. The readers of these novels were primarily women who were trying to bring empowerment into their own lives. It is possible that these books reinforced them in their stand for equality. It is plausible that this contributed to the best-selling status of these novels. Little Women, Anne of Green Gables, and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm are all still in print. The fact that Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm fit into a popular genre may have been conducive to making it a bestseller. The American public loves to talk about the good old days; the days when life was simpler and idealized. This was also true at the turn of the century. American was rapidly becoming an industrialized nation at this time and people from around the world were flocking to the cities. This made them reminisce about the pleasant life in the country. The majority of best-selling books during this time period were set in the country. Many people were living in squalid conditions as described in The Jungle. As a matter of fact "the rapid growth of industrial cities in the late 19th century gave rise to a new, complex vocabulary of pollution"(Rome). The words for air and water pollution were coined during this time. Life was tumultuous and uncertain, even religion was affected. Change in U.S. higher education was from a road humanistic approach with a Christian orientation to a technical, empirical orientation following a spread in the belief of social Darwinism (Noll). The visual arts that had been so dominated the morality of popular religion acquired secular worth. The theory is that this occurs when there are underlying cultural contradictions (Blau). The main contradiction was the maintenance of a labor aristocracy in a period of rapid mechanization in the United States (Dawson). Elitism was growing more important during this time period. There was a widening of the social chasm between the wealthy and the poor. The poor were forced to work under dangerous conditions for very little pay. Workers died on the job because of unsafe work conditions and the policies of the management. The inability of workers to exact compensation from employers for injuries they sustained in industrial accidents prompted calls for reform. The arguments for compensation were focused around the social costs and consequences of leaving the livelihoods of workers unprotected (Go). The roles of women were also in a state of flux during this time. The women in the middle-class and prosperous working families rarely worked after marriage. They wanted to devote their time for caring for their families. Widows and their children were forced to seek employment however (Kleinberg). The beginning of the welfare state was started when the government provided pensions for widows. This was so that they could stay home and take care of their children. Many young women were not staying home or getting married. They were attended colleges or seminaries and becoming teachers, secretaries, etc. Wiggin herself attended a teaching academy before starting her kindergarten. Women were also trying to win the right to vote. So even though the domestic skills of women were held to be highly important during this period many women did not practice them. It is a possibility that during this time of upheaval many people would turn to a book about the country to escape. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm is a religious book in that it is full of Christian and moral teachings. Traditional values are reinforced, at least superficially. It is a book that could be safely recommended for a child. This might have been comforting to a reader. In a world turned upside down by changing political, social, religious, and industrial views the story of Rebecca's childhood could have been a welcome diversion. Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm is a bestselling novel and a continued favorite of the reading public. This is because of the public persona of the author, the popular genre of books that it fit into at the time, and the public's love of nostalgia. Rebecca danced her way into the hearts of readers around the world and has continued to reside there. Hackett's 80 Years of Bestsellers Ladies Home Journal The Bookman The New York Times Dictionary of Literary Bibliography Judith R. Blau "The Toggle Switch of Institutions: Religion and Art in the U.S. in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Go, Julian III. "Inventing Industrial Accidents And Their Insurance: Discourse and Worker's Compensation in the United States." Kleinberg, Jays. "The Economic Origins of the Welfare State: 1870-1939." Rome, Adam W. "Coming to Terms with Pollution: The Language of Enviromental Reform, 1865-1915." Noll, Mark A. "Christian Thinking and the Rise of the American University." Dawson, Andrew. "The Paradox of Dynaminic Technological Change and the Labor Aristocracy in the United States, 1880-1914." Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm The Jungle Kornfield, Eve and Susan Jackson. "The Female Bildungsroman in Nineteenth-Century American: Parameters of a Vision.

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