Kazan, Elia: The Arrangement
(researched by Candice Cloos)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description
1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)
Elia Kazan. The Arrangement. New York: Stein and Day, 1967. Copyright: 1967 by Elia Kazan Published simultaneously in Canada by Saunders of Toronto, Ltd.
2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?
The first American edition is published in hardcover with cloth binding around the spine extending onto the front and back covers.
3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available
4 Pagination
224 leaves, pp. [2] 1-6 7-444 [2]
5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?
The first edition is neither edited nor introduced. It does, however, contain a dedication on page 3: To the girl from Makrikoy
6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?
The first edition contains no illustrations.
7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available
8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)
Page Measurements: 6.25" by 9.25" Text Block Measurements: 4.5" by 7.25" Top Margin: .75" Bottom Margin: 1.25" Side Margin: 1" Inside Margin: .75" Type Measurements: 82R Type Style: serif The first edition is composed of wide margins and small text. The text is well printed without smudges. The type is no longer a rich black color, but has faded slightly with time. The cover seems to be well preserved, probably due to the dust-jacket. Chapters are marked at the top center of the page with the number appearing in between two centered dots. The first line of the opening paragraph is centered as well, and is 3.75" from the top of the page. The first letter of the first word is much larger than the rest of the text, measuring .625". The remainder of the word is capitalized, but is of the standard type used throughout the book. The title is displayed in the same manner on the binding, first leaf, title page and dust jacket. It is written in all lower case letters with a dash separating the word 'arrangement': the | arrange- | ment. This section of the text is enclosed in a box. On the title page the author's name is in all capital letters and placed above the box. The script is more stylized and is quite large, filling most of the page.
9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available
10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)
The same paper stock is used throughout the book. The type is wove paper and it is a smooth, even, granulated texture. The side edge is deckled, while the top and bottom edges are straight. The paper is thick and contains no damage such as tearing, foxing or staining. One mark exists on the front fly leaf written in green marker. The amount '1.00' is crossed out and followed by the mark '.50' to denote price. The original color of the pages is white, but has faded to yellow over time. The wear is even throughout with the exception of the margins, which are a deeper yellow than the text block.
11 Description of binding(s)
The board binding is a medium green color. The cloth binding around the spine extends .875" onto the front and back covers. The color of the cloth is dark white and is slightly yellowed because of time, expecially around the edges. The binding is a calico texture cloth and contains horizontal writing in gold leaf (gilt): ELIA | KAZAN | the | arrange- | ment | SD | STEIN | and | DAY. The author and title are stamped on the top of the spine; the publisher's initials and name at the bottom. The title is surrounded by a square outline mentioned before as being used throughout the book and dust-jacket. The publisher's initials are in a more stylized font. On the bottom of the front cover is the author's signature, also stamped in gold. Unillustrated end papers extend as fly leaves and match the white of the paper color. The fly leaves are thicker and heavier than the pages and show less yellowing, though a deeper yellow exists around the edges.
12 Transcription of title page
Recto: A NOVEL BY | ELIA | KAZAN | the | arrange- | ment | SD STEIN AND DAY/ Publishers/ New York Verso: Copyright 1967 by Elia Kazan | Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 67-10325 | All rights reserved | The Beanbag Song on page 235 is by Jerry Lester, Milton Delugg and | Willie Stein 1950, 1951 by Frank Music Corp., 119 West 57th Street, | New York, New York 10019- All Rights Reserved Used by Permission | This work is fiction. The characters in this book are ficticious; any resem- | blance to real persons is wholly accidental and unintentional. | Published simultaneously in Canada by Saunders of Toronto, Ltd. | Designed by David Miller | Manufactured in the United States of America | Stein and Day/ Publishers/ 7 East 48 Street, New York, New York 10017 The recto is a 2 page title page. The left page contains 'A NOVEL BY' and the publisher's information. The right page contains the author's name above the title.
13 JPEG image of title page, if available
14 Manuscript Holdings
Information unavailable at this time.
15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)
The dust jacket of the first edition contains a variety of information. The left inside of the jacket displays the author and title followed by several statements: Elia Kazan has written a major Ameri- | can novel. | It is about the "arrangements" by which | we live. In marriage. Out of marriage. | It is an earth shaking book. The earth | it shakes is the one each of us is stand- | ing on. | (see back flap) | A LITERARY GUILD SELECTION. In the top right corner is the price $6.95. The right inside jacket gives us a photograph of Elia Kazan drinking a cup of coffe. Underneath is a brief list of his accomplishments. The back of the dust-jacket contains quotations promoting another one of Kazan's books America America. It includes the price of this book ($4.95) as well. The front cover and spine are in the same format as the book itself. The dust-jacket is white; the author's name and publisher is green; the title is orange.
Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History
1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A
A book club edition was published by Stein and Day in 1967. [554 p. 22cm] The first Stein and Day paperback edition was published in 1985. [543 p. 18cm]
2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available
3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available
4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?
Stein and Day Publishing: First printing: 60,000 copies Sixth printing: 10,000 copies Seventh printing: 15,000 copies Total copies as of July 1967: 191,000
5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A
Avon Books: New York, 1967. New York, 1972. Collins Publishing: London, 1967. Fontana Publishing: London, 1967. London, 1977. London, 1979. Sphere Publishing: London, 1967. London, 1973. Warner Books: New York, 1976.
6 Last date in print?
Translated into Polish in 2001 (see section 13).
7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)
1967- 212,500 copies sold in stores and an additional large number through the Literary Guild and the Dollar Book Club [Bowker] 1967- $6.95 per copy [Publishers' Weekly]
8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)
According to Publishers' Weekly: April 10, 1967: 115,000 April 24, 1967: 126,000 May 15, 1967: 131,000 Total copies sold in 1967- 212,500 (in stores) [Bowker]
9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)
Ad placed in Publishers' Weekly, January 23, 1967: [Located in upper left hand corner of Stein and Day Publisher's advertisment. Includes a small photo of the book.] THE ARRANGE- MENT By Elia Kazan A major novel about the "arrangements" by which we live, in and out of marriage. "A sure bet for best seller status."--Pub- lishers' Weekly First printing: 60,000 copies. Initial Ad- vertising: $35,000. February 27, $6.95.
10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available
11 Other promotion
Stein and Day Publishers offers free copies of "The Arrangement" to citizens of town whose library refuses to circulate the book [Publishers' Weekly May 8, 1967] Stein and Day Publishers sues the Chicago Tribune for "managed news," on its failure to report "The Arrangement" No. 1 on the best seller list [Publishers' Weekly May 29, 1967]
12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A
Movie: 1985 "The Arrangement." Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. Sound Recording: 1986. "The Arrangement." Newport Beach CA: Books on tape. Movie: 1969. "The Arrangement." Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.
13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A
Amerika no genso. Translated by Haruki Murakami. Tokyo: Hayakawa Shobo, 1968. [Japanese] Das Arrangement. Translated by Ulla H Herrera. Munchen/ Zurich: Droemer, 1968. [German] Das Arrangement. Munchen: Droemer knaur, 1971. [German] Das Arrangement: Roman. Brugg [Switzerland]: Fackelverlag, 1974. [German] Das Arrangement: Roman. Munchen: Verlag Hermberger, 1968. [German] El Compromiso: el arreglo. Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera, 1969. [Spanish] El Compromiso. Barcelona: Circulo de Lectores, 1974. [Spanish] Hahesolar. Tel Aviv: Beyton Hotsaah Laar, 1978. [Hebrew] Ho symvivasmos. Athena: Ekdoseis Maiondros, 1969. [modern Greek] Moskva: Izd-vo "Knizhnaia palata," 1996. [Russian] Solelka: roman. Moskva: TERRA, 2000. [Russian] Sopimus elaman konssa. Helsingissa: Otava, 1973. [Finnish] Uklad. Translated by Ceculia Wojewoda. Pozna: Dam Wydawniczy Rebis, 2001. [Polish] Uklad. London: Puls, 1992. [Polish]
14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A
Not applicable after extensive search
15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A
Search did not indicate that this novel has any sequels or prequels.
Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author
1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)
Elia Kazan was born on September 7, 1909, as Elia Kazanioglov. His place of birth was in Constantinople (what is now Istanbul), Turkey. His parents, George and Athena Kazanioglov, were of Greek descent. In 1913 the family immigrated to the United States. They settled in New York City, where his father worked as a rug merchant. Elia Kazan attended Williams College and graduated cum laude in English in 1930. Afterward, he attended Yale Drama School, but left the graduate program after only two years. In 1933 Kazan joins the leftist Group Theater in New York City, where he worked as an actor, stage manager, and director. He directed his first stage play in 1935 and in the 1940s he gained fame as one of Broadway's finest talents. Kazan was especially acclaimed for his powerful and realistic direction of the plays of Tennessee Williams, such as "A Streetcar Named Desire" (1947), as well as the works of Arthur Miller like "Death of a Salesman" (1948). Other stage successes include "The Skin of Our Teeth" (1942), "All My Sons" (1947), and "Tea and Sympathy" (1953). Kazan began his career as a movie director making documentary films and made his first feature film, A TREE GROWS IN BROOKLYN in 1945. Other movies include: A STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE (1951), ON THE WATERFRONT (1954), EAST OF EDEN (1955), SPLENDOR IN THE GRASS (1961), THE ARRANGEMENT (1969), and THE LAST TYCOON (1976). However his favorite movie was VIVA ZAPATA (1952), which he considered to be his first true film. His movies won twenty-two Academy Awards and have been nominated 62 times. Kazan's involvement with the Communist party threatened his movie career. In 1934, Kazan joined a Communist party cell in New York. However, he only remained a Communist for one and a half years. He quit the party "in disgust." In January of 1952, Kazan was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). He denied the accusation that the Group Theater was a "front" organization and that its three directors were communists. After receiving pressure from 20th Century Fox to disclose the names of other Group Theater members, Kazan did. He justifies this action as such: "To defend a secrecy I don't think right and to defend people who have already been named or soon would be by someone else?I hate the Communists and have for many years and don't feel right about giving up my career to defend them. I will give up my film career if it is in the interests of defending something I believe in, but not this." Despite this attitude, Kazan was still regarded as a controversial figure and the studio could not pay his salary for the final picture remaining in his contract. In addition to directing films, Kazan was also an author. He wrote his first book AMERICA, AMERICA in 1961, which became a bestseller. In 1988 he published his autobiography, ELIA KAZAN: A LIFE. Kazan has many achievements throughout his life, including the co-founding of the Actor's Studio in 1947. These were honored in 1983 by a Kennedy Center Life Achievement ceremony. Later, in 1999, he receives a Special Lifetime Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. As of October 2002, Kazan is still living and married to his third wife, Frances Rudge, whom he married in 1982. http://www.moderntimes.com 10/27/2002 http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/kazan.htm 10/27/2002 http://www.biography.com 10/27/2002 ed. William Baer. Elia Kazan Interviews. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2002.
Assignment 4: Reception History
1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
The immediate reception of Elia Kazan's THE ARRANGEMENT was primarily negative. This seems to be in part because the audience's expectations were so high, due to Kazan's stellar reputation as a director. A TIME magazine critic implies just that when citing that Kazan's publishers tried to make the most of his success as an Academy Award-winning filmmaker. This notion was confirmed by the throwing a show-biz-style publication party packed with celebrities. Kazan's connection with the cinema is also seen in his style. Melvin Maddocks remarks that "Kazan's cinematic and dramatic expertise does not carry over to the novel expect in the dialogue." This also reflects the disappointment in the book itself. The Times Literary Supplement states "Mr. Kazan's films were more original and vital than his novel." Eliot Fremont-Smith of the New York Times also uses Kazan's style as a basis of criticism, his primary complaint being the length. He claims that Kazan tried too hard to include everything from action to literary devices, making it excessive. Smith states, "Everything includes all the clichés of style, thought, character one can readily recall." Smith believes that even the types of action in the plot are also overdone from explicit sex to a suicide attempt. "It is a chock-full of action, sex, punchy set-pieces, yards of conversation, all in a sort of amalgam of the styles of Norman Mailer, Hemingway and Harold Robbins- and it, too, should have few commercial worries," Smith states commenting on the novel and the market of the time. The critic for TIME magazine calls THE ARRANGEMENT a "muddled, massive mistake." The style reflects this confusion: "?Kazan tries to make the most of it with splashy writing: dream sequences, yellowed letters, soliloquies to mirrors, toys-in-the-attic flashbacks, instant psychoanalysis, prose more often stream than consciousness. Only a broodingly nostalgic childhood scenes hint of Kazan's larger writing talent." Even when the novel is criticized, the true talents of Kazan are not. James Baldwin of the New York Review of Books calls THE ARRANGEMENT a "naked book," but that Kazan doesn't even give the impression that he is trying to write a novel. This is probably due to "the urgency of a confession and the stammering authority of a plea." Granville Hicks, like Baldwin, addresses the form of the novel, but gives Kazan more credit than other reviewers, "if he [Kazan] has proved to be less than a master of the form he had adopted, he has at least shown an awareness of the novel's possibilities of this age." Hicks also argues that "It's not certainly altogether bad: parts, indeed?are excellent." As for the language, Hicks notes the massive amount of four letter words but says that the writing is nevertheless "lively" and includes "effective figures of speech." However, Hicks brings up a sharp criticism that most critics' did- the lack of originality, "I do blame him [Kazan] for not posing the questions in some fresh way that might give us a new insight." Smith connects this lack of inventiveness to the commonality among people in his statement, "Yet THE ARRANGEMENT is fun enough for however long one wants to or can stick with it, and it does deal with feelings and fantasies that are serious, contemporary, and not uncommon." Despite the somewhat positive message, Smith still addresses the problems with the length of the book. The Times Literary Supplement claims the "it is fiction for the Sons of the Immigration- almost predictable?" While crediting Kazan for acknowledging essential themes, it seems that "such themes, suitable starting-points for more thoughtful novels, are mere parentheses within this strenuous, energetic, but trite fiction." It is clear that Kazan is deeply talented, and that THE ARRANGEMENT does possess redeemable qualities that weren't thoroughly explored. Life magazine's review was the only one found THE ARRANGEMENT to be a success. Kazan is described as a "master story teller" who reaches everyone by causing "a falter in the rhythm of your days and nights, perhaps a defoliation of your life style." Kazan has an "acutely intuitive understanding of human behavior fit perfectly into the writing of fiction?" The Life magazine writer uses this understanding of humanity to defend the points criticized, such as sex. The claim is that "One may dislike or (depending on one's moral attitude) disprove of Eddie Anderson [the protagonist], but nobody can deny his humanity." Based on all the other reviews, it appears that this particular critic was blinded by Kazan's reputation when reviewing this novel. Sources: Baldwin, James. New York Review of Books 8:17 March 23, 1967 Hicks, Greenville. Saturday Review 50:25 March 4, 1967 Maddocks, Melvin. Choice. 4:442 June 1967 "A Phony's Fight to Get Human" in Life Magazine Vol. 62, 1967, p.25. "One Man's Family" in Time Magazine Vol. 89, 1967 p. 92. Eliot Fremont Smith. "All about Eddie" in The New York Times. February 21, 1967, p. 45. "The State of the Union" in The Times Literary Supplement, No. 3403, MAY 18, 1967, p.413.
2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
The immediate reception of Elia Kazan's THE ARRANGEMENT was primarily negative. This seems to be in part because the audience's expectations were so high, due to Kazan's stellar reputation as a director. A TIME magazine critic implies just that when citing that Kazan's publishers tried to make the most of his success as an Academy Award-winning filmmaker. This notion was confirmed by the throwing a show-biz-style publication party packed with celebrities. Kazan's connection with the cinema is also seen in his style. Melvin Maddocks remarks that "Kazan's cinematic and dramatic expertise does not carry over to the novel expect in the dialogue." This also reflects the disappointment in the book itself. The Times Literary Supplement states "Mr. Kazan's films were more original and vital than his novel." Eliot Fremont-Smith of the New York Times also uses Kazan's style as a basis of criticism, his primary complaint being the length. He claims that Kazan tried too hard to include everything from action to literary devices, making it excessive. Smith states, "Everything includes all the clichés of style, thought, character one can readily recall." Smith believes that even the types of action in the plot are also overdone from explicit sex to a suicide attempt. "It is a chock-full of action, sex, punchy set-pieces, yards of conversation, all in a sort of amalgam of the styles of Norman Mailer, Hemingway and Harold Robbins- and it, too, should have few commercial worries," Smith states commenting on the novel and the market of the time. The critic for TIME magazine calls THE ARRANGEMENT a "muddled, massive mistake." The style reflects this confusion: "?Kazan tries to make the most of it with splashy writing: dream sequences, yellowed letters, soliloquies to mirrors, toys-in-the-attic flashbacks, instant psychoanalysis, prose more often stream than consciousness. Only a broodingly nostalgic childhood scenes hint of Kazan's larger writing talent." Even when the novel is criticized, the true talents of Kazan are not. James Baldwin of the New York Review of Books calls THE ARRANGEMENT a "naked book," but that Kazan doesn't even give the impression that he is trying to write a novel. This is probably due to "the urgency of a confession and the stammering authority of a plea." Granville Hicks, like Baldwin, addresses the form of the novel, but gives Kazan more credit than other reviewers, "if he [Kazan] has proved to be less than a master of the form he had adopted, he has at least shown an awareness of the novel's possibilities of this age." Hicks also argues that "It's not certainly altogether bad: parts, indeed?are excellent." As for the language, Hicks notes the massive amount of four letter words but says that the writing is nevertheless "lively" and includes "effective figures of speech." However, Hicks brings up a sharp criticism that most critics' did- the lack of originality, "I do blame him [Kazan] for not posing the questions in some fresh way that might give us a new insight." Smith connects this lack of inventiveness to the commonality among people in his statement, "Yet THE ARRANGEMENT is fun enough for however long one wants to or can stick with it, and it does deal with feelings and fantasies that are serious, contemporary, and not uncommon." Despite the somewhat positive message, Smith still addresses the problems with the length of the book. The Times Literary Supplement claims the "it is fiction for the Sons of the Immigration- almost predictable?" While crediting Kazan for acknowledging essential themes, it seems that "such themes, suitable starting-points for more thoughtful novels, are mere parentheses within this strenuous, energetic, but trite fiction." It is clear that Kazan is deeply talented, and that THE ARRANGEMENT does possess redeemable qualities that weren't thoroughly explored. Life magazine's review was the only one found THE ARRANGEMENT to be a success. Kazan is described as a "master story teller" who reaches everyone by causing "a falter in the rhythm of your days and nights, perhaps a defoliation of your life style." Kazan has an "acutely intuitive understanding of human behavior fit perfectly into the writing of fiction?" The Life magazine writer uses this understanding of humanity to defend the points criticized, such as sex. The claim is that "One may dislike or (depending on one's moral attitude) disprove of Eddie Anderson [the protagonist], but nobody can deny his humanity." Based on all the other reviews, it appears that this particular critic was blinded by Kazan's reputation when reviewing this novel. Sources: Baldwin, James. New York Review of Books 8:17 March 23, 1967 Hicks, Greenville. Saturday Review 50:25 March 4, 1967 Maddocks, Melvin. Choice. 4:442 June 1967 "A Phony's Fight to Get Human" in Life Magazine Vol. 62, 1967, p.25. "One Man's Family" in Time Magazine Vol. 89, 1967 p. 92. Eliot Fremont Smith. "All about Eddie" in The New York Times. February 21, 1967, p. 45. "The State of the Union" in The Times Literary Supplement, No. 3403, MAY 18, 1967, p.413.
Assignment 5: Critical Analysis
1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)
Elia Kazan's The Arrangement was the number one selling fiction book in the year of 1967. (Publisher's Weekly) Despite this immense success, the novel received a vast number of poor reviews from critics; thus it thrived due to factors other than literary merit. These include the reputation of the author, the connection of the text to the audience, the changing social values of the 1960s and the formulaic genre. While these reasons influenced the public at the time, none were effective enough for the novel to be revered in future years, showing the limited lifespan of many best sellers. The name Elia Kazan had a deep impact on the sales of the book. Kazan is a very controversial figure due to his connection to the Communist Party. In 1934 he joined the party, though only for a year and a half. During this time he was also a founding member of the Group Theater in New York. This was a leftist organization that included many Communists. In 1952 Kazan was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). After much internal debating, he disclosed names of other associates in the Group Theater, while declaring his own hatred toward Communists. This negative publicity caused Kazan to loose his contract with Fox Studios. Kazan managed to fight his bad reputation to achieve success in directing and writing, but was never able to overcome it. Even in 1999 a public debated occurred over whether Kazan should receive a Special Lifetime Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. He was recognized with this award based on his work, not his personal life. (www.moderntimes.com) This persisting stigma further proves the magnitude of his reputation in the 1960s. As with many controversial figures, the public was enticed with Kazan, thus promoting sales through curiosity. This intrigue was amplified with Kazan claiming the book to be partly autobiographical. In his autobiography A Life, Kazan explains this idea, "They story had to be- with this launching- about me, about my experience. There were factors that impelled these scattered pieces in a definite direction. One was the recent defeat in my own life. Another was the challenges I'd thrown at myself about my work and accomplishments, which weren't different from those Barbara had thrown at me as we parted. I recalled her tart and rebellious spirit?" (731) This shows that the plot of The Arrangement was not only based on Kazan's life, but the characters as well. To Kazan the text was deeply personal, "What I wrote had one merit: Since it never occurred to me that anyone would see it, I set down what I thought and felt without self-censoring. A true expression of anger, love, and bewilderment, it consisted of letters to myself and long explorative notes, moving ever closer to the bone." (730) Though authors do not always tell the truth with regard to their writing, simply stating that the source of a work is the author's life immediately sparks interest. Readers were curious about Kazan's work as well as his life. The Arrangement followed the success of Kazan's first novel, America America. Even the back dust cover of the first edition advertises the novel in relation to Kazan's previous success, "Since its original publication in 1962, America America has become a modern classic, accepted as the best imaginative work ever written on the theme of immigration." Further quotes offer additional praise of what was a very popular book. By associating the two books, the publishers, Stein and Day, probably sought to have the success of America America reflect upon The Arrangement, while offering additional advertising. The dustcover of The Arrangement also connects the work to the audience in a subtle way. The phrase, "Elia Kazan has written a major American novel," hints at this being an American text. America is known as the land of opportunity that offers the promise of success through the American Dream. This vision is open to everyone and is part of the appeal of America to immigrants. Throughout the text, Kazan emphasizes the main character, Eddie's, Greek heritage. This focus, as well as stressing Eddie's wealth, makes this the classic American Dream story. The Times Literary Supplement supports this claim, saying that The Arrangement "is fiction for the Sons of the Immigration." Even those individuals who did not immigrate to this country still have the values of those previous family members who had. Such is the case with Eddie who felt the pressure to make a lot of money from his father who believed strongly in the American Dream. The American Dream is a principle shared by everyone, with the appeal resting in the attainment of it. Eddie fulfilled this dream and was nevertheless unhappy, showing the emptiness of material wealth. Kazan immediately presents this idea to readers in the opening paragraphs of the novel, "The riddle is not that a man as successful as I was would try to kill himself. There were reasons why I might have. I had everything, as they say, but still there were reasons." (7) This dissatisfaction forms a bridge between the upper and lower classes. Kazan aimed to break down the barriers between social classes, as he discusses in an interview, "Eddie wakes up in his house in Beverly Hills. He has $64,000 in the back. He and his wife and secretary go over the bills and document their expenses. An hour later he is $400,000 in the hole. That's what affluence is in America. A guy living in an expensive house is just as shaky as anybody else." (Young 292) In other words, despite a person's success or lack there of, there is a common humanity among them. This humanity connects Eddie to the audience, making Eddie an every man character. Kazan's writing tactic contributed to this, "?Eddie doesn't have more of the qualities that I do have. I think he could have been deeper that way. A lot of my friends see themselves in certain characters, but that's not so, either. Actually, there's a little bit stolen from everybody I know." (Young 291) In making the characters have eclectic qualities, they become realistic which the audience can relate to. Kazan also makes Eddie's success familiar to the audience through his occupation. Rather than portray an actor or highbrow character, Eddie works in advertising for money, though his passion is writing. Many people are in jobs where they are unsatisfied, and long to pursue another avenue, which Eddie's duel careers represent. The description of the importance of Eddie's job in advertising is expressed in such a way that the readers' heads nod in association, "Williams and MacElroy paid my running bills: the house, the mortgage, the upkeep, the maid, the lawn, the gardener, the insurance, the garages, the utilities, the appliance servicing, the premiums and monthly payments on our annuity, my wife's clothes and her goddam psychoanalyst, Dr. Leibman, my daughter Ellen's clothes and her gyp-size tuition at Radcliffe?In other words, everything." (25) While the typical reader does not share the same lavish expenses, the idea is the same, contributing to the blurring of social classes. The sentence runs on, giving an overwhelming feeling, quite the same as financial burdens give. The significance of Eddie's work also has another meaning. The profession of advertising itself was carefully chosen as Kazan explains, "One of the things that was criticized about the book was setting it in the world of advertising- people said it was a cliché. There's a certain amount of truth to that, but it's also one of the most central and apt images of America. It typifies the split between what we profess and what we are." (Young 291) Not only is Eddie's profession one that readers can easily relate to, but it also connects to a greater theme of the book. The arrangement in the novel masks reality with an image, thus enabling Eddie to have it all. Nevertheless he still is not satisfied with his life, he desires more than the illusion. This enhances his humanity even further to awaken the aspirations within the reader.
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