Hemingway, Ernest: A Moveable Feast
(researched by Jack McLoughlin)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Ernest Hemingway. A Moveable Feast. London: Jonathan Cape, 1964 Copyright: 1964 Ernest Hemingway Limited Parallel first Editions: A Moveable Feast: New York: Scribner, 1964.pp211.

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

First British Edition published in trade cloth binding

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

96 Leaves [8]pp. 1-192

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

Introduced by Mary Hemingway "Ernest started writing this book in Cuba in the summer of 1958..." With Ernest Hemingway quote at the header, "If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris...it stays with you For Paris is a Moveable Feast." Prefaced by Ernest Hemingway from San Francisco de Paula, Cuba: "For reasons sufficient to the writer, many places, people, observations and impressions have been left out of this book." The preface continues to write about what was not included in the book and then tells the reader that he can reguard this book as fiction if he wants.

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Not Illustrated

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The text of the book is quite attractive in its size and placement on the page. The margins are quite large, and the text is well spread out. The pages are numbered on the bottom outside corners of the pages. Chapters are numbered and titled in accordance with Table of Contents. Page size: 198mm X 128mm Text size: 142mm X 95mm Text type: Serif Type Size: 94R

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper was made by John Dickinson and Co. LTD. just a few years before they were bought out of buisness for the first time. The paper is thick and smooth, and there is limited discoloration if any. Pages appear uniformly the same; yellowish/mother-of-pearlish color. The pages appear virtually unblemished, without any tears, or stains whatsoever. The outside top part of the pages is stained red so that the top of the pages have a uniform red look when the book is closed. The book is in very good shape.

11 Description of binding(s)

Trade cloth binding. Original brown boards with bead grain No title on front of book. Transcription of spine: A|MOVE-|ABLE|FEAST| Then there is a separation marked by a half-inch long gold line, sandwiched by 2 smaller lines, and then continues with ERNEST|HEMINGWAY At the bottom is a gold insignia of the Jonathan Cape Publishing company. All of the text on outside spine is written in gold lettering. Endpapers: Light brown with white streaks in them.

12 Transcription of title page


13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

The Ernest Hemingway Collection at the John F. Kennedy Library Boston, Massachusetts 02125

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

Dust Jacket Exterior: The Jacket is torn some around the top edges. The front cover is Orange and gets lighter colored from left to right. Hemingway is written across the front in very large letters (3 letters a line). And A Moveable Feast is written in next to the ING and below the H in HEM, and above the W in WAY. The side of the dust jacket includes the title and the Author in the same, freehand sort of font.The back of the cover is Hemingway's name written across the bottom and continuing onto the front where the WAY serves as both the end of his name from the back cover and also from the front cover. Dust Jacket Interior: Across the top it says the book title with quote from Ernest Hemingway,"If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris...it stays with you For Paris is a Moveable Feast." It then goes on to give a short description of the book which is also a biographical description. Across the bottom of the front flap it says "18s. net" Dust jacket design by: Hans Tisdall Copy Specific: This copy was donated by Gertrude and William White

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

Publication: London : Jonathan Cape, Year: 1964 Description: 5, [128]-159 leaves ; 25 cm Note(s): Title from blue printed wrappers./ Consists of chapter 1 and chapter 17 of A moveable feast./ Issued as a promotional piece. Publication: London : Jonathan Cape, Year: 1964 Description: 192, p. ; 20 cm. (had an extra page) Note(s): Uncorrected proof copy.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

As of July 20 1964 the book was in its "Third Large Printing" with no identifying mark on copyright page (scribners version) the first 2 printings carried the letters A and B respectively.

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

Publication: New York, Scribner Year: 1964 Description: 211 p. ports. 22 cm. Publication: New York : Bantam Books, Year: 1965, ©1964 Description: 209 p. ; 19 cm. Publication: London : Reprint Society, Year: 1965, 1964 Description: 190 p. Publication: New York, Penguin Books, Year: 1966 Description: 159 p. Publication: Frogmore, St. Albans [Eng.] : Panther, Year: 1977, ©1964 Description: 140 p. ; 18 cm. Publication: New York : Collier Books Year: 1986 (tough to tell this was a 1986 1st Scribner classic/Collier ed.) Publication: Norwalk, Conn. : Easton Press, Edition: Collector's ed. Year: 1990, 1964 Description: xi, 211 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. Publication: New York : Macmillan, Edition: 1st Scribners/Macmillan Hudson River ed. Year: 1989, ©1964 Description: 211 p. [6] p. of plates : ports. ; 22 cm. Publication: New York : Book-of-the-Month Club, Year: 1993 Description: 211 p., [4] leaves of plates : ports. ; 22 cm. Publication: New York : Scribner Classics, Edition: 1st Scribner Classics ed. Year: 1996, 1964 Description: 207 p. : ill., 9 p. of plates ; 22 cm. (this could also be considered another edition from the Original publisher of the first American Ed.) Publication: New York : Simon & Schuster, Edition: 1st Touchstone ed. Year: 1996, 1964 Description: 211 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. Publication: London : Vintage, Year: 2000, 1936 Description: 181 p. ; 20 cm.

6 Last date in print?

Still in Print as of 2000 Spanish translation still in print as of 2001

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

Publisher's Weekly- "A new bestseller, published May 5. On that the first day of publication, the Scribner book store sold 100 copies. Advance orders from all over the country were between 70,000 and 80,000, and, in the first week of publication, Scribner reports that reorders came in by the 500's and 1000's."

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

Initially for sale at $4.95 Publisher's Weekly- "A new bestseller, published May 5. On that the first day of publication, the Scribner book store sold 100 copies. Advance orders from all over the country were between 70,000 and 80,000, and, in the first week of publication, Scribner reports that reorders came in by the 500's and 1000's."

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Publishers weekly in the Mar. 23, 1964 copy (vol. 185 No. 12 The book was advertised on the cover, and in addition the ad spanned 2 more pages. It included 2 headshots of Hemingway, the Young black-haired Hemingway and an older grey-haired Hemingway. front cover said "in the long awaited work completed shortly before his death, Hemingway recreates his youth in Paris." Inside left: "initial ad appropriation $30,000." Inside Right: "Here is the...long awaited new Hemingway the first one since The Old Man and the Sea and undoubtedly destined to out-distance even that..."

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

Publishers Weekly Jan 27 contained a brief summary of the upcoming book and also an ad "Non-fiction books covering a wide variety of subjects circle the astral advisor" (A Moveable Feast was one of the books) Publishers Weekly May 4, 1964- The Bowkers radio service which provided 2 and 1/2 minute book review clips for more than 820 Libraries, bookstores and radio stations, covered the book in its show

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Book On tape recorded 6 sound cassettes Read by Wolfram Kandinsky.1990 Paris: a moveable feast (symphony may be based on the idea that Hemingway's book takes place in Paris. Little information was available) Symphonies : Cassette tape 1 sound cassette :

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Spanish- Barcelona : Editorial Seix Barral, Edition: 1a ed. en Biblioteca Formentor Year: 2001 208 p. ; 20 cm. Description: 208 p. ; 20 cm. Chinese-Liu dong di xiang yan Haimingwei Bali hui yi lu / Edition: Chu ban. Year: 1999 Description: 254 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. French- Paris est une fÍte Paris : Gallimard, Year: 1991 Description: 240 p. ; 18 cm. Persian- Jashn-i bkaran Publication: [S.l] : F. Ghabríi, Edition: Chap-i 1. Year: 1990 Description: 174 p. ; 21 cm. Russian- Prazdnik, kotoryi vsegda s toboi Publication: Moskva Izd-vo politicheskoi literatura, Year: 1990 Description: 156 p. ; 21 cm. Finnish- Nuoruuteni Pariisi Publication: Helsinki : Suuri Suomalainen Kirjakerho, Year: 1984 Description: 208 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 22 cm. Italian- Festa mobile Publication: [Milano] : Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Year: 1981 Description: 267, [5] p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 19 cm. German- Paris- ein Fest f¸rs Leben Publication: Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt, Year: 1980, 1971 Description: 123, [3] p. ; 19 cm. Swedish- En fest f?r livet Publication: Stockholm : Bokf?rlaget Aldus/Bonniers, Year: 1970 Description: 178, [12] p. ; 19 cm. Czech- Pohybliv˝ sv·tek Publication: Praha : Odeon, Year: 1966 Description: 205 p., 17 p. of plates : ill. ; 16 cm. Polish- Ruchome Swieto Publication: [Warszawa] : Czytelnik, Year: 1966 Description: 161, [3] p, [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 20 cm. Hungarian- V·ndor¸nnep Publication: Budapest : EurÛpa K?nyvkiadÛ, Year: 1966 Description: 235, [4] p. ; 17 cm. Japanese- Ido shukusaibi Publication: Tokyo : Mikasa Shobo, Year: 1964 Description: 318 p. : photos. ; 20 cm Dutch- Amerikaan in Parijs Publication: Amsterdam : A.J.G. Strengholt's Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V., Year: 1964 Description: 193, [2] p. ; 22 cm. Danish- Der er ingen ende p Paris Publication: K¯benhavn : J.H. Schultz, Year: 1964 Description: 159 p. ; 22 cm.

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A

Published in Life Magazine Apr. 10, 1964 pg.60-92 one installment

15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A


Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois. Under the guidance of his parents he became a creative thinker, and outdoorsman, getting his creativity from his mother, Grace Hall, a music instructor, while learning to prowl the Midwestern country for fish and game from his father, Clarence Edmunds Hemingway, a physician. Hemingway spent his summers in Petoskey, Michigan where he would spend the day "barefoot, wearing suspenders and a straw hat like a veritable Huckleberry Finn."1 In October of 1917, after his graduation from high school, Hemingway went to work for the Kansas City Star as a reporter. When World War I commenced Hemingway attempted to enlist but was rejected due to poor eyesight. He found a way to be involved, though, serving as an ambulance driver on the Italian front, and later receiving a medal of Honor for being injured in the leg with shrapnel. Due to this injury, he spent time in a hospital in Milan. In January of 1919 he returned to the states and stayed in the Midwest for three years following the war. After a summer in the Michigan of his childhood, Hemingway left to work for the Toronto Star in January of 1920. He then moved to Chicago to write, and met Hadley Richardson, the mother of his first child John Hadley Nicanor. She and Hemingway were both eager to return to Europe. After meeting Sherwood Anderson, who had just returned from Paris, and getting a letter of introduction to Ezra Pound, and Gertrude Stein from him, Hemingway and his new bride left for Paris three months after their September wedding. In Paris he worked initially as a Foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, and lived meagerly in a shoddy apartment on the Montagne Ste. Genevieve in the Latin Quarter.2 While writing in Paris, the Hemingways became well versed in European culture, taking Vacations in Switzerland, visiting Italy, where he interviewed Mussolini, and hiking places like the St. Bernard Pass.3 Hemingway was assigned the coverage of the Lausanne Peace Conference for the Star, and at the same time was secretly trying to supplement his limited income by sending stories to William Randolph Hearst's International News Service. Hadley, toting all but two of Hemingway's manuscripts with her, was on her way to meet her husband in Lausanne when the briefcase containing the manuscripts was stolen, leaving Hemingway with almost none of his early works. After this the Hemingways took a holiday in Italy where Hemingway wrote six short stories, which were published in April of 1923 in "The Little Review," marking his first large European publication. In 1925 Hemingway met F. Scott Fitzgerald, Vogue Magazine's fashion editor, Pauline Pfeiffer and many of his other literary contemporaries who would later serve as sketches for his posthumously published work, "A Moveable Feast," which documented his life in Paris from 1921 to 1926. In 1927, Hemingway and Richardson divorced, ending the first of what would end up being four marriages. Soon after his first divorce, Hemingway married Pfeiffer, who had his second child, Gregory Patrick. In 1940 after having divorced Pfeiffer, he married Martha Gellhorn. Five years later he was divorced again and married, Mary Welsh, who would be his wife until his death. Hemingway spent the rest of his life in Key West, Florida, then moving to Cuba, and after the Communist Regime took over, he moved to Ketchum, Idaho. It was here that on July 2, 1961 because of physical, and mental illnesses, Hemingway ended his life with an Abercrombie and Fitch shotgun, in a similar fashion to his father. "A Moveable Feast," published in 1964 was written in a matter of fact, concise style, acquired from his time spent as a journalist. It outlined his years in Paris, the people he met, and his relationships, and was one of the final works published under his name. It was this style that has made Hemingway a Pulitzer Prize winner, and one of America's most famous authors of all time. footnotes 1-3: Dictionary of American Biography Supplement 7

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Many of the reviews of A Moveable Feast center around what type of book this posthumously published work is attempting to be. Though categorized as a non-fiction, autobiographical collection of Hemingway's memoirs from his life in Paris in the 1920s, many of the book's contemporary critics viewed the book as a work of fiction with very strong autobiographical bases. Hemingway was also scrutinized for his style of retelling accounts from thirty years before, and his frequent tendency to avoid telling the whole story of any of the events it documents. Stanley Kauffmann of the New Republic considered the book to be "biographically invaluable," but later went on to say that, other than the attempts to recreate conversations he had with his wife verbatim, "little of the rest of the book is less than best Hemingway." Once taken more as a work of fiction, critics seemed mostly to agree that this book was one of Hemingway's best works of recent times. "This, as Hemingway himself suggests, is a work of fiction, and ought to be considered among his novels. It is an ingenious and deliberate way of revisiting the source of a great writer's strength and it displays that strength as very little else of his had done in 30 years," said Frank Kermode in the New York Review of Books. Though the majority of the reviews were positive, Hemingway's style and structure was noted, at the least, by most, and criticized by some. The book is laid out structurally into twenty sketches which each tell a story of a person or event which Hemingway experienced in Paris. Morely Callaghan felt that "some of the people to be looked down on are done in the book as set pieces and not at all in the flow of memories." He claimed that "this faulty structure is the great weakness of the book." He later went on to praise the sketches for what they were saying that "the touch he uses in these portrayals is controlled, expert, humorous, and apparently exact," seeming to be of the opinion that although he didn't agree with the way the book was put together, Hemingway did a lot with what he was given. Hemingway used a style that to many, appeared to skirt the whole truth. Nelson Algren found "the present reminiscence is pleasant, humorous?and evasive." Kermode thought that "the book has that sharpness and suggestiveness which Hemingway means to achieve when he pursues his famous policy of omitting the known." Many critics seemed to agree that one of the main reasons this book should be considered a success was the subject matter, which was so familiar to Hemingway, and a familiar dream to many who grew up in that time. Kermode was of the belief that the "power of it [the novel] comes from?a return?though by a man still sentimentally engaged in the struggle for style?to the time when he first made that hero's effort." Philip Young in the Kenyon Review states that "Hemingway is not remembering but reexperiencing; not describing, making," and he believed that a large part of the "appeal of this little, almost trivial book lies in the fact of Hemingway's active and communicated presence in the great years of Americans in Paris." Critics point out the fact that there are many things wrong with this autobiographical attempt in it's structure, style and non-biographical tendencies, but many were quick to bring forth a point that Kermode expressed in that he did the book "wrong beyond question if I seem to suggest that it could have been written by any but a great writer. This is, in some ways, Hemingway's best book since the 1920s and that makes it altogether exceptional." WORKS CITED: Hemingway the Critical Heritage" ed. Jeffery Meyers This compiled volume contained the following full articles: Stanely Kauffman 'New Republic' May 9, 1964 Morley Callaghan 'Spectator' May 22, 1964 Neslon Algren 'Nation' June 1, 1964 Frank Kermode 'New York Review of Books' June 11, 1964 Philip Young 'Kenyon Review' Autumn 1964

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

In the years that followed Hemingway's death, his personality was studied thoroughly as was his writing. Critics that reviewed his books realized that there tended to be a lot of biographical information in his fiction, and, in the case of A Moveable Feast, some fiction in his biography. The authenticity of this novel was called more into question, but it seemed that in the midst of all of this controversy, the critics seemed to be in agreement that whatever he had created, fiction or nonfiction, it was truly good. In her book on A Moveable Feast, Jaqueline Tavernier-Courbin that "A Moveable Feast is clearly a reconstruction of the past rather than a recollection of it." She believed that the book had been put together from papers that Hemingway had sketched out while living in Paris, but believed these papers to serve the purpose of a rough outline, much more so than actual documentation strictly adhered to when the book was being written. Courbin was of the opinion that A Moveable Feast could "hardly be an objective portrayal of its author and his contemporaries." This was due in part to the fact that the novel was written almost a half century after many of the events had occurred, and also because Hemingway "felt a need to justify himself," and had a "wish to leave to the world a flattering self-portrait," says Courbin. It also appeared that after the initial publication of the book, it was given much praise, which could be due to the fact that it was published posthumously, or simply because it was a good book. John Raeburn believed though that it is a book which is "more often praised than examined." It seems that in recent times, after more scrutinizing, the way Hemingway saw himself or wanted to see himself may have played a large role in the forming of this book. "When Hemingway wrote A Moveable Feast in 1960," wrote The Guardian publication, "he was trapped in the impasse of his own legend." Courbin says that the book was written to "unify the various experiences into a myth of himself?a myth which he started many years before and which he attempts to consecrate in his autobiography." These feelings may have come from the fact that in the end of his life, Hemingway felt that he was no longer able to write well, and was frustrated and disheartened by this which may have led him to create, as Courbin says, "a negative portrayal of those who could be seen as literary competitors and an idealized self portrayal." The critics seemed to agree, that aside from the debates of why the book was written how it was, or what type of book it is supposed to be, that it was, as a book, very good, and Hemingway was able to bring his memories of the Paris of the 20s onto paper very successfully. Courbin believed that regardless of the factual imperfections, or ego-boosting that "A Moveable Feast is beautifully written and truly vintage Hemingway." The way Hemingway was able to portray "sharpening a pencil before writing a story in a café, the taste of cold white wine, the joy to be found in the company of eccentrics," as John Mortimer writes, makes the "sensations in the book, the sights and sounds?brilliantly real." Mortimer believes that the book has "no golden haze of Nostalgia," but Courbin begs to differ stating that "A Moveable Feast is pervaded by a strong feeling of nostalgia?and it may well be the greatest quality of Hemingway's autobiography." Nostalgic or not, the critics seem to be in agreement that this was one of Hemingway's finest works of his later years. WORKS CITED: The Hemingway Review Vol IV No. 1 Fall 1984 "Fact and Fiction in A Moveable Feast" By Jacqueline Tavernier-Courbin "A Moveable Feast: The Making of Myth" by Jaqueline Tavernier-Courbin The Guardian publication August 10, 2002 (found on Lexis Nexis) John Mortimer 'Sunday Telegraph' [London] Ap. 15, 2001 (found on Lexis Nexis) John Raeburn on "Hemingway's Art of Non Fiction" (found on JSTOR)

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Introduction Ernest Hemingway's posthumously published book, "A Moveable Feast," which was labeled a non-fiction autobiography, but taken by many as fiction inspired by truth, rose quickly to the top of the bestseller list in May of 1964. It was a work, reflecting back on his years in Paris during the 1920s, that Hemingway supposedly started writing in 1957 after recovering some lost journals and sketches of his from the basement of the Ritz Hotel in Paris in November of the previous year. Earlier in his life, Hemingway had commented on the subject of memoir writing saying that "it is only when you can no longer believe in your own exploits that your write your own memoirs."1 After a troublesome time in Spain in 1956, and a cancelled trip to Africa, the emotional and physical state of Hemingway was such that he became unsure of his ability in fact felt inclined to write about a time in his life where he believed that he was a better writer.2 The book experienced wide success with advanced orders coming in by the tens of thousands, reported Publisher's Weekly. The large number of advanced orders, and the overall success of the book were due to many factors, making this a book categorized by many different bestseller traits. Published posthumously after a long, very successful career, the name Hemingway itself was enough to produce a bestseller, especially after the recent success of the novella, The Old Man and the Sea. Also the fact that this book was published posthumously may have added to its success in that readers felt as if they were getting new Hemingway material even after his death. The book was also highly publicized by Scribner's, one of the leading publishers, well in advance of its release. The fact that this book was marketed as a biography of Hemingway also may have attracted attention because it was widely known that Hemingway was a man who lived an adventurous life. This made readers eager to learn about the real Hemingway, and his adventures as a young writer in Paris, which was a subject that was appealing to the generation that grew up with Hemingway, because they saw the Paris of the 1920s as one of the cultural centers at the time for young aspiring writers, but also appealed to the young crowd of the 1960's because of it's themes of youth, and discovery. Hemingway was also able to appeal to a larger crowd than some because he was a part of a small group of literary novelists to experience bestseller success for their works. This meant that Hemingway could sell to the average reader, and also the scholar. These factors all combined to make this book a bestseller which is still in print today. The Famous Author Bestseller After the success of The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea, and others, Hemingway had established himself as one of America's best writers of the 20th century. Due to this constant success, Hemingway had garnered considerable respect from readers, and thus his name became a marketing tool that had unbelievable selling power. Readers seemed to be assured of something when they bought a Hemingway novel, in the same way that readers know what to expect when they pick up a Tom Clancy, or Danielle Steele novel. Whether it was the warfront in A Farewell to Arms, or big game hunting in Green Hills of Africa, readers of Hemingway knew that they were in for a story of bravery and adventure, or just a picture of a life that most of them had only dreamed of living. Hemingway had also achieved Nobel Laureate, and Pulitzer Prize winning status with the publication of A Moveable Feast's direct predecessor, The Old Man and the Sea. Although the book was criticized by many reviewers, that didn't stop people from buying the book in May of 1964, nor did it hamper the tens of thousands of copies in advance orders, a fact which can almost solely be attributed to the Hemingway name. The Posthumous Novel Bestseller The Fact that this book was published posthumously, and was his first novel released after his death, may have also led to its success. With the most recent novel, being The Old Man and the Sea, a Pulitzer and Nobel prize-winning work, Hemingway's final book he published while alive, and heralded as one of the greatest works of the 20th century, readers were eager to read the next novel by this author. The posthumous novel almost serves as a resurrection, bringing back a writer who had captivated audiences since the 1920s. The posthumous novel also has an almost untouchable element to it simply because the author is no longer living and thus is not able to be subjected to direct criticism. The book also presented a raw feeling because it was compiled from journals and writings of Hemingway from earlier in his life that he then began to compile, but failed to publish before his death. This gives the readers a feeling that they are reading something that Hemingway had not fully prepared for the public yet, and thus made it appear to be a more raw, and vulnerable piece of work than his other novels. Being published three years after his death, the book was close enough to his life that his success was still greatly present in the world of literature, but at the same time it's publication was far enough removed from his last novel, published in 1952, that readers were eager to read any novel that he had written after the great success of The Old Man and the Sea. The Highly Publicized Bestseller A Moveable Feast was published by Charles Scribner's Sons, one of the leaders in the Publishing world, and one that was responsible for publishing the works of many famous authors including some of Hemingway's good friends, and subjects of A Moveable Feast, like F. Scott Fitzgerald.3 Scribner's heavily promoted A Moveable Feast, running multiple page spreads in Publisher's Weekly, and other publications. They released the book amidst a time of great success for non-fiction in America, with books dealing with the subject of President Kennedy selling rampantly. Scribner's was eager to publish the book in 1960 when Hemingway approached them with the manuscript, knowing that with his name on the book it would be, at worst, a very moderately successful book. The book was in fact very "highly praised" by editors from Scribner's who were eager to publish the novel, and even serialize it.4 Much of the book's success came from the material published within the book itself, but some of it's success was due to the fact that this book, through early, full publication in Life Magazine, extensive advertisement in literary journals such as Publisher's Weekly, and other forms of mass advertisement, was a well marketed, and well timed, book on the part of Scribner's. The Biography/ Memoirs Bestseller A Moveable Feast was marketed by Scribner's as a biography, even though the preface written by Hemingway stated that the reader could regard the book as a work of fiction. This probably worked to the publisher's advantage because it was widely known that Hemingway led a life of African safaris, Spanish bullfights, and warfront rescues, and readers wanted to read about the life of this adventurous man, especially because it dealt with his early life and the beginning of his successful career. The biography also traditionally paints a more intimate picture of the author, which was something that readers were eager to discover about Hemingway. Although he wrote about being in Africa, and on the warfront, it was often assumed that Hemingway never really wrote about who he really was. Readers and colleagues of his hoped that with the release of this posthumous autobiography, many of the intimate details of his life, and his personality would be revealed. Whether or not that is achieved in the novel is a frequent point of discussion. Since the book was written only about a small portion of Hemingway's life, it could not ably portray who Hemingway, as a whole, was, but it did "represent the writer in a state of original grace,"5 said Peter Messent. This idyllic portrayal of the youthful writer was one that was lapped up by eager readers. Those who were contemporaries of Hemingway lived vicariously through him as they experienced an age of youthful artists in Paris that they had somehow missed while growing up, and those who were younger than him were attracted to the youthful themes of freedom, independence, and discovery that ran throughout the novel. By categorizing the book as a biography, Hemingway and Scribner's made it an entirely unique Hemingway novel that, regardless of the subject matter and just by it's category of biography alone, was separate from any of the preceding Hemingway novels. Due to this the book had immense selling power, as it became a staple for the avid Hemingway fan, and a change of pace for the general Hemingway reader. The Wide Appeal/Literary Bestseller Another reason for the immense success of this book lies in the fact that it appealed to a very broad spectrum of people. A Moveable Feast was able to appeal to the older contemporaries of Hemingway who had grown up in the 20s. It was this generation of people that was able to relate to the movement of young American authors to Paris in the early 20th century. This was the period that they had grown up in, and so this book gave them a sense of connection with a nostalgic past of youthful European independence that they had, or had wished to experience when growing up. The book was also appealing to the more youthful crowd of the 60s because it was written about a young writer who was of the same age. The book had themes of independence and freedom, portrayed by the youthful Hemingway, who moved to Paris to find his inspiration as a young writer. It also contained themes of discovery as Dr. Robert Lucid stated, "Hemingway's scene invokes the things that still matter to young people who are just starting out: the experience of new learning and the initiation that goes with it, along with the discovery of new community, new friends, new love and new loneliness."6 These were all themes and ideas that spoke to the youthful crowd of the 1960s. Aside from the age barriers, this novel was also unique in the fact that it was one of the few novels by an author who was a highly respected literary figure. This meant that scholars as well as those people who normally read bestsellers were likely candidates to purchase this book. Being a literary bestseller also gave this book an immensely longer shelf life because it meant that this book would be taught and discussed in the classroom, a much more unlikely fate for a Danielle Steele novel. It seems that as long as a book is being taught, discussed, and purchased by students and scholars, it will continue to be in print. A Moveable Feast's ability to appeal to a massive base of readers was one of the ultimate successes of the book. Conclusion A Moveable Feast was a success due to many factors. That is not to say that the book itself does not merit bestseller-like sales it achieved. Many critics agree that this was one of Hemingway's greatest books, but its success was undoubtedly aided by many factors. It was a novel that carried with it the name of one of the greatest American Authors of the 20th century, and was released after his death. It was marketed as an intimate portrait of a daring, yet private man, and was done so by an extremely successful publishing house. It was also a novel that communicated to a broad spectrum of people, young and old, intellectual readers and average readers alike. The book was bound to succeed, regardless of its quality, and did in fact succeed in the end because of a mixture of its literary quality, and many other, well calculated outside forces. WORKS CITED 1 Burwell, Rose Marie "Hemingway The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels" p149 2 Burwell, Rose Marie "Hemingway The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels" p149 3 Tebbel, John. History of Book Publishing in the United States. Vol. II. 1975. New York: Bowker. p224 4 Burwell, Rose Marie "Hemingway The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels" p180. 5 Messent, Peter Ernest Hemingway 6 http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/v42/n31/read.html Dr. Robert F. Lucid

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