Le Carre, John: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy
(researched by Jason Hoffman)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description
1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)
Le Carre, John: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, 1974 Distributed by Random House Copyright 1974 by le Carre Productions. Parallel First Editions: In Canada: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Toronto: Random House of Canada Limited, 1974
2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?
The first edition was published in cloth.
3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available
4 Pagination
183 leaves, pp.[8] [1-3] 4-115 [116-119] 120-137 [138] 139-180 [181] 182-190 [191] 192-256 [257-259] 260-280 [281] 282-338 [339] 340-355 [3]
5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?
The first edition is neither edited nor introduced.
6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?
The first edition is not illustrated.
7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available
8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)
The page size is 210 cm x 142 cm. The text measures 163 cm x 101 cm. Top margin: 20 cm. Bottom margin: 27 cm. Outer margin: 25 cm. Inner margin: 16 cm. 89R The book is presented well. It is easy to read and is not cluttered. The text is without smudges and is presented clearly. The pages have held up well over time. On the second unnumbered page at the end of the novel, there is a note on the type. The text of the book was set on the Linotype in Janson. The book was composed, printed, and bound by American Book-Stratford Press, New York, NY. Typography and binding design by Christine Aulicino.
9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available
10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)
The paper is laid woven paper. It has slight texture. There are no chain lines, or attempts to imitate them. The pages have a yellow tint to them, and there is more white near the center of the page. The margins of the page have more yellow than the center of the page. The book has some fingerprints on the pages and some stains. The pages have held up well over time.
11 Description of binding(s)
The binding is made of cloth. It is entirely black. The pages are stitched into twelve small sections and these are then all stitched together. On the front cover, the title of the book is imprinted into the cover three times with no color (into the cloth) followed by the name of the author in a slightly larger font in gold. The title is then imprinted in gold, and again followed by one more imprinting of the title into the black cloth: TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY | TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY | TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY | John leCarre| TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY | TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY. On the spine is the name of the author, title, and publisher, all in gold lettering : John leCarre| TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY| Knopf. On the back cover the publisher's symbol is imprinted on the lower right corner. It is barely visible as it is just stamped into the cover. The dust jacket is in fairly good condition. There is some wear along the top and bottom edges, but it is not torn anywhere.
12 Transcription of title page
Recto: TINKER, | TAILOR, | SOLDIER, | SPY| John le Carre | [publisher's device] | ALFRED A. KNOPF: New York | 1974 Verso: This is a Borzoi Book | Published by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. | Copyright 1974 by le Carre Productions | All rights reserved under International and Pan-American | Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States | by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, and simultaneously | in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, | Toronto. Distributed by Random House, Inc., New York. | Grateful acknowledgement is made to The Clarendon | Press for permission to reprint the eight line rhyme | and descriptive paragraph from page 404 of the Oxford | Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, edited by Iona and | Peter Opie (1951). | Manufactured in the United States of America
13 JPEG image of title page, if available
14 Manuscript Holdings
Unknown
15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)
John le Carre is a pseudonym of David John Moore Cornwell On the eighth unnumbered page at the beginning of the novel, there is a rhyme followed by an explanation of where it comes from: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Sailor, Rich Man, Poor Man, Beggarman, Thief. Small children's fortune-telling rhyme used when counting cherry stones, waistcoat buttons, daisy petals, or seeds of the Timothy grass. -from the Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes The name "Henry C. Morris, Jr." is written in blue ink on the inside cover of the book.
Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History
1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A
In 1974, the original publisher, Knopf, issued a Book Club Edition of the book.
2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available
3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available
4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?
The third printing of the book yielded 40,000 copies, bringing the total to 100,000 at that point. The fourth printing yielded 35,000 copies. During the fifth printing, 15,000 copies were printed. The sixth printing added another 3,800 copies, and in the seventh printing, another 14,400 books were printed, for a total of 168,200 copies in print.
5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A
1974, London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1974, Boston: G.K. Hall (large print) 1974, Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library. 1975, New York: Bantam Books. (mass-market paperback) 1979, New York: Bantam Books. (paperback) 1979, London: Pan Books. 1979, London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1980, New York: Bantam Books. (paperback) 1981, London: Pan Books. 1985, Toronto: Bantam Books. 1985, New York: Bantam Books. 1987, Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library. 1987, Bath: Chivers (large print) 1988, Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library. 1989, London: Coronet 1989, Markham, Ont.: Penguin Books. 1991, London: Hodder and Stoughton (lamplighter edition) 1991, Sydney: Hodder and Stoughton. 1995, London: Pan Books. 1999, London: Sceptre. 2000, London: Coronet (to be published soon)
6 Last date in print?
The most recent printing of the book is scheduled for printing in 2000 by Coronet in London.
7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)
The book was printed for the first time June 17, 1974, and as of August 26, 1974 there had been a total of 98,000 copies sold. It was averaging about 3,000 copies sold per week while it was on the bestsellers list in 1974.
8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)
In 1974, the year it was published, 154,647 copies were sold.
9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)
"A devilishly effective tale of double dealing. Unquestionably le Carre's finest writing since 'The Spy Who Came in From the Cold', this is a really big one for the summer. --Publisher's Weekly "A stunning story of espionage" -- The Wall Street Journal "le Carre is simply the world's greatest fictional spymaster" -- Newsweek From the publisher: John Le Carre's internationally famous hero, British Secret Service Agent George Smiley, has a world-class problem. He has discovered a mole--a Soviet double agent who has managed to burrow his way up to the highest level of British Intelligence. Under the direction of Karla, Smiley's equivelent in the Soviet Union, the agent has already blown some of the most vital secret operations and most productive networks. Now-how can Smiley use a lifetime's worth of espionage skills to ferret out a spy who posseses them as well?
10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available
11 Other promotion
The book was compiled along with two other books written later by John le Carre: The Honourable Schoolboy and Smiley's People. These three came to be known as the "Quest for Karla" novels, and were published several times together as one large novel. This novel was also compiled along with several other authors into a large book of spy novels. Three Complete Novels: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy; The Honourable Schoolboy; Smiley's People. New York: Wings Books, 1995. The Quest for Karla. New York: Knopf, 1982. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy; The Honourable Schoolboy; Smiley's People. London: Octopus Group. 1988. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy; The Honourable Schoolboy; Smiley's People. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1994.
12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy was a television miniseries filmed by the BBC in 1980. It was directed by John Irvin and it starred Alec Guinness as George Smiley. Audiocassette versions: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 1987. Eight cassettes Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Bath, England: Chivers Audio Books, 1997. Twelve cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Ashland, OR: Blasckstone Audio Books, 1991. Nine cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Ashland, OR: Classics on Tape, 1988. Nine cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Ashland, OR: Classics on Tape, 1991. Nine cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Novato, CA: The Mind's Eye, 1989. Two cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Charlotte Hall, MD: Recorded Books, 1988. Eight cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Downsview, Ont: Listen for Pleasure, 1981. Two cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 1984. Eight cassettes Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Rockville, MD: Tape Worm, 1983. Nine cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. New York: Knopf, 1974. Four cassettes. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 1986. Eight cassettes
13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A
El topo. Barcelona: Argos Vergara, 1980. [Spanish] El topo. Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera, 1980. [Spanish] El topo. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes Editores, 1987. [Spanish] El topo. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes, 1989. [Spanish] El topo. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes Editores, 1997. [Spanish] La taupe. Geneve: Edito-Service, 1979. [Switzerland] Kuo chiang, ts'ai feng, shih ping, chien tieh. Taipei, (Taiwan): Hao-shih-nien chu-pan-ch'e, 1982. [Chinese] Kuo chiang, ts'ai feng, shih ping, chien tieh. Tai-pei shih: Hsing, kuang ch'u pan she, 1984. [Chinese] Ha-Hafarperet: pahah, hayat, hayl, meragel. Tel Aviv: Zemorah, Bitan, 1975. [Hebrew] Decko, dama, kralj, spijun. Zagreb: Graficki Zavod Hrvatske, 1990 [Serbo-croatian] Shipon, vyidi von! Moskva: Vagrius, 1998 [Russian] La taupe. Paris: Laffont, 1991. [French] La talpa. Milan: A. Mondadori, 1993. [Italian] Dame, Konig, As, Spion. Munchen: Droemer Kraur, 1974. [German]
14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A
N/A
15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy is part of a series called "The Quest for Karla." It is the first book in this loosely tied series. The second book is The Honourable Schoolboy, published by Knopf in 1977. It is followed by Smiley's People, published by Knopf in 1980. The three books were first published together in 1982 by Knopf as one book called The Quest for Karla.
Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author
1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)
For more general biographical info, please see The Russia House. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy is the seventh novel written by John le Carre. It is the first in a series of three novels known as The Quest for Karla, and includes The Honourable Schoolboy (1977) and Smiley's People (1980). This novel is based on the action of real life double agents that penetrated the British Secret Service. In the next 30 years following World War II, there were several exposures of Russian spies in Britain. In 1951, two spies, defected to Russia just before they were about to be exposed. In 1963, the same thing happened again with a man named Kim Philby fleeing to Russia. And finally, in 1973 a fourth man was revealed in connection with the first three. These four men, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Philby, and Sir Anthony Blount, all had some influence on le Carre in the writing of Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. However the "mole" in the novel, Bill Haydon, is seen most like Kim Philby. Le Carre spent much time on the issue of Kim Philby prior to writing this novel. In 1968, he wrote the introduction for The Philby Conspiracy. His attitude toward Philby is one of fascination and repulsion, saying that he had "a profound loathing for the man" (Cobbs). His introduction to this book was widely talked about for quite a while. Le Carre began this novel by trying to include his most memorable character, Goerge Smiley, in a small role. He soon found that he was not able to write the complex novel without the characteristics of such a character. The author told Paul Vaughan in 1979 that the "extremely labyrinthine plot" needed Smiley "as a central intellect in whom the reader has so much confidence" (Lewis). Smiley thus became the central character for the other two novels of this trilogy. In 1980 a miniseries was made from Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy starring Alec Guinness as George Smiley. Le Carre was full of praise for the way that Guinness portrayed the character, but at the same time he argued that Guinness "also took the character away from me." He said that the performance didn't match his inner image of Smiley. When le Carre tried to go back and write about Smiley, he found that the interpretation the actor had of the character made it hard for le Carre to think of Smiley except as Guinness (Lewis). Le Carre decided to put the character of George Smiley to rest for a while and thus closed the door on any possibility of adding to the trilogy he had just finished. Le Carre has not used the character of George Smiley in any of his novels since Smiley's People. Sources used for this assigment: Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: the fiction of John le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia. 1986. Cobb, John L. Understanding John le Carre. University of South Carolina Press, South Carolina. 1998. Lewis, Peter. John le Carre. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, New York. 1985. www.robotwisdom.com www.galenet.com
Assignment 4: Reception History
1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy begins a loosely connected trilogy starring George Smiley. When it was first published in 1974, it was widely reviewed. This novel followed what was highly regarded as a very disappointing novel by le Carre in 1971, The Naïve and Sentimental Lover. He made a strong comeback with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, and this was said to be his best book since The Spy Who Came in From the Cold (1963). It was compared favorably to this book, and was even seen by some to be his best work to date. Richard Locke, writing for the New York Times Book Review called it "a fill recovery, which in many ways consolidates le Carre's career." Writing in Newsweek, Alexis Gelber and Edward Behr state that "with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy and Smiley, [le Carre] hits his stride. After le Carre had written The Spy Who Came in From the Cold and a couple of other thrillers, ha abandoned that style for "serious" fiction. Much of this was not widely accepted, so when he came out with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy audiences gladly accepted his return to writing thrillers. In this novel the audience is reintroduced to George Smiley, the character for whom le Carre is most noted. When the book was first released, there was much praise for le Carre's return to his old style of writing, and the book was applauded for its suspenseful complexity and its depth of characterization. Le Carre's work had always been viewed as realistic, and this was no exception. An official of the CIA was quoted in Time: "We know that our work plays havoc with our personal lives. We know that an awful lot of what we do is slogging through file cards and computer printouts. Poor George Smiley. That's us." Locke goes on to say "the social and physical details of English life and the day to day activities of intelligence service at home and abroad are convincing. Unlike many writers le Carre is at his best showing men hard at work." Many saw this novel as a breakthrough for le Carre and noted his improvement in the way he presented his characters and storylines. Locke points out that "le Carre has learned a lot since he created Smiley; he now can handle complementary heroes and intertwining plots." Peter S. Prescott, writing for Newsweek, shares that "thirty pages in to Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy should find you breathing heavily and mumbling penances for hours wasted with Ian Fleming and Frederick Forsyth." Even with all the praise the novel received, there was some criticism attached to it. Most of this criticism focused on the novel's ideological and social commentary. Locke calls the work "melodramatic and sentimental." One of the harsher critics of the book, Roger Sale, wrote in the Hudson Review that "le Carre?is really dull and really pretentious in Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, plodding and gloomy." Others found the novel to be too in depth. A review in the Times Literary Supplement wrote: "[it] is not always easy to follow. Some elaborately drawn characters are peripheral to the main plot; certain subsidiary strands are worked too meticulously." Pearl K. Bell wrote in the New Leader that " it is myopic and unjust to think of le Carre with high art." She says a more appropriate evaluation is as a "master craftsman of ingeniously plotted suspense, weaving astoundingly intricate fantasies of discovery, stealth, surprise and final exposure." Sources used for this assignment: Book Review Digest, 1974 Current Biography, 1974. America. 131:100. September 7, 1974. America. 131:300. November 16, 1974. Atlantic Monthly. 234:88. August, 1974. Book List. 70:1228. July 15, 1974. Book World. p3. June 23, 1974. Book World. p1. December 8, 1974. Book World. p2. July 27, 1975. Book World. p2. September 14, 1975. Christian Science Monitor. 66:11. July 3, 1974. Critic. 33:91. October, 1974. Hudson Review. 27:624. Winter '75. Library Journal. 99:1564. June 1, 1974. Listener. p30. July 4, 1974. National Review. 26:880. August 2, 1974. New Leader. pp. 15-16. June 24, 1974. New Statesman. 88:52. July 12, 1974. Newsweek. 83:103A. June 17, 1974. New York Review of Books. 21:24. July 18, 1974. New York Times Book Review. p1. June 30, 1974. New York Times Book Review. p72. December 1, 1974. New Yorker. 50:83. July 22, 1974. Observer. p33. June 30, 1974. Observer. p28. January 18, 1976. Publishers Weekly. 205:78. April 8, 1974. Publishers Weekly. 207:178. May 19, 1975. Spectator. 223:21. July 6, 1974. Time. 103:88. June 24, 1974. Times Literary Supplement. p761. July 19, 1974. Wall Street Journal. 184:10. July 24, 1974.
2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy begins a loosely connected trilogy starring George Smiley. When it was first published in 1974, it was widely reviewed. This novel followed what was highly regarded as a very disappointing novel by le Carre in 1971, The Naïve and Sentimental Lover. He made a strong comeback with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, and this was said to be his best book since The Spy Who Came in From the Cold (1963). It was compared favorably to this book, and was even seen by some to be his best work to date. Richard Locke, writing for the New York Times Book Review called it "a fill recovery, which in many ways consolidates le Carre's career." Writing in Newsweek, Alexis Gelber and Edward Behr state that "with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy and Smiley, [le Carre] hits his stride. After le Carre had written The Spy Who Came in From the Cold and a couple of other thrillers, ha abandoned that style for "serious" fiction. Much of this was not widely accepted, so when he came out with Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy audiences gladly accepted his return to writing thrillers. In this novel the audience is reintroduced to George Smiley, the character for whom le Carre is most noted. When the book was first released, there was much praise for le Carre's return to his old style of writing, and the book was applauded for its suspenseful complexity and its depth of characterization. Le Carre's work had always been viewed as realistic, and this was no exception. An official of the CIA was quoted in Time: "We know that our work plays havoc with our personal lives. We know that an awful lot of what we do is slogging through file cards and computer printouts. Poor George Smiley. That's us." Locke goes on to say "the social and physical details of English life and the day to day activities of intelligence service at home and abroad are convincing. Unlike many writers le Carre is at his best showing men hard at work." Many saw this novel as a breakthrough for le Carre and noted his improvement in the way he presented his characters and storylines. Locke points out that "le Carre has learned a lot since he created Smiley; he now can handle complementary heroes and intertwining plots." Peter S. Prescott, writing for Newsweek, shares that "thirty pages in to Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy should find you breathing heavily and mumbling penances for hours wasted with Ian Fleming and Frederick Forsyth." Even with all the praise the novel received, there was some criticism attached to it. Most of this criticism focused on the novel's ideological and social commentary. Locke calls the work "melodramatic and sentimental." One of the harsher critics of the book, Roger Sale, wrote in the Hudson Review that "le Carre?is really dull and really pretentious in Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, plodding and gloomy." Others found the novel to be too in depth. A review in the Times Literary Supplement wrote: "[it] is not always easy to follow. Some elaborately drawn characters are peripheral to the main plot; certain subsidiary strands are worked too meticulously." Pearl K. Bell wrote in the New Leader that " it is myopic and unjust to think of le Carre with high art." She says a more appropriate evaluation is as a "master craftsman of ingeniously plotted suspense, weaving astoundingly intricate fantasies of discovery, stealth, surprise and final exposure." Sources used for this assignment: Book Review Digest, 1974 Current Biography, 1974. America. 131:100. September 7, 1974. America. 131:300. November 16, 1974. Atlantic Monthly. 234:88. August, 1974. Book List. 70:1228. July 15, 1974. Book World. p3. June 23, 1974. Book World. p1. December 8, 1974. Book World. p2. July 27, 1975. Book World. p2. September 14, 1975. Christian Science Monitor. 66:11. July 3, 1974. Critic. 33:91. October, 1974. Hudson Review. 27:624. Winter '75. Library Journal. 99:1564. June 1, 1974. Listener. p30. July 4, 1974. National Review. 26:880. August 2, 1974. New Leader. pp. 15-16. June 24, 1974. New Statesman. 88:52. July 12, 1974. Newsweek. 83:103A. June 17, 1974. New York Review of Books. 21:24. July 18, 1974. New York Times Book Review. p1. June 30, 1974. New York Times Book Review. p72. December 1, 1974. New Yorker. 50:83. July 22, 1974. Observer. p33. June 30, 1974. Observer. p28. January 18, 1976. Publishers Weekly. 205:78. April 8, 1974. Publishers Weekly. 207:178. May 19, 1975. Spectator. 223:21. July 6, 1974. Time. 103:88. June 24, 1974. Times Literary Supplement. p761. July 19, 1974. Wall Street Journal. 184:10. July 24, 1974.
Assignment 5: Critical Analysis
1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)
John le Carre's Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy is a best-selling novel that follows a formula for success. This formula helps to teach us about some interesting points about bestsellers. This essay will show three aspects of the formula that is used to help learn more about best-selling novels. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy was written by an author who practices in the field that he writes about, was written at a time when certain historical events in Britain revolved around the same topic as the novel, and shows the author's use of a character that recurs through several novels to attract readers to this book. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy belongs to a category where the author writes about a profession that he once practiced or is currently practicing. The fact that the author could possibly have an inside view into the profession draws readers to the novel because it puts the reader in a position where they feel more in touch with what is happening. There is a small group of authors who belong to this category. Le Carre sets the reader in the shoes of a person working in the world of espionage by describing various techniques, using inside terminology appropriate to the field, and showing all aspects of the job. He doesn't just show the flashy action/adventure many readers see in such works as the James Bond novels by Ian Fleming. At the age of sixteen, le Carre fled to Europe to escape his father and the public school system. There he studied languages, developing a mastery of German. When he finally returned to England, he joined the army. He landed a job in army intelligence because of his skill in languages. There he performed such jobs as debriefing British officers and interviewing refugees. It is uncertain that if during this time the British Secret Service recruited him. He officially joined the British Foreign Service in 1958. He has never been forthcoming about whether he actually served as an undercover agent for many years, though he does admit to having inside information about the profession (Cobbs 2-3). In an interview with London's Daily Telegraph magazine, le Carre told James Cameron the following when asked if he had been "at one time on the game himself": "Look at it like this. If you or I write a novel about a brothel-keeper people wouldn't assume that we'd been brothel keepers" (Cameron 27). Even after more than thirty years, le Carre still continues to be very vague about whether or not he was truly a spy (Cobbs 7). The name John le Carre is a pseudonym for David Cornwell. The author chose a penname because Foreign Service officials were discouraged from publishing under their own names. At the time he began writing, he still worked for the Foreign Office, and anonymity was essential (Modern Crimes 104). Le Carre has never hidden behind this name, however. He only uses it when writing professionally (Cobbs 14). Other authors that belong to this category include Robin Cook, John Grisham, and Ian Fleming. Robin Cook is an ophthalmic surgeon, and all but two of his novels published are medical murder mysteries. He allows the reader to feel as if they are knowledgeable in the subject of medicine. Novels such as Cook's Fatal Cure allow the reader see what goes on in the financial side between hospitals, physicians, and insurance organizations from an inside perspective. John Grisham, another one of these authors, writes legal thrillers. He attended law school at the University of Mississippi and began to practice criminal law upon his graduation. Shortly thereafter, he became involved in politics and switched to civil law (Merriman, Brief Biography). This has influenced Grisham's writing. In one example of his work, The Firm, a young lawyer is "drawn to a successful law firm in Memphis where the perks are good--but the secrets are deadly" (Grisham, The Firm). While these best-selling authors are more modern, one prime example from the 1960s more closely related to le Carre: Ian Fleming. Fleming was very successful with two James Bond novels during the 1960s. He hit the bestsellers list with You Only Live Twice in 1964 (Maloney, Bibliographic Description) and The Man with the Golden Gun in 1965 (Johnson, Bibliographic Description). Fleming's spy novels were successful due in part to his involvement with the British Foreign Office. Just before World War II, he gathered information about Russia and their possibility of being an ally during the War. He later served as the Director of Naval Intelligence and received training as a spy (Maloney, Brief Biography). Le Carre uses nomenclature that shows the serious side of espionage, connecting to the reader's desire for danger. This terminology makes the reader feel as if they are part of the spy field. The novel refers to espionage as "tradecraft", and how an individual agent practices this is his "handwriting". "Scalphunters" go out in search of foreign agents to buy off, or "turn". These are only a few examples of the jargon used by le Carre to orient the reader into espionage (Merry, 211). The use of this language teaches us more about how an inside view into the field truly gives the reader a feel for knowing more about the profession than they actually do. The use of historical events that serve as a precursor for the novel is a second category to which Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy belongs. The idea that there were moles, or foreign spies, within the British Secret Service began to surface in the early 1950s. In 1951, two Foreign Office officials, Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, fled to Moscow just before they were to be revealed as Soviet agents (Denning 118-120). These events were a shock to national pride and security. The men serving in high positions were not what they seemed, and many wondered how far the disloyalty would go (Lewis 120). This situation also occurs in the novel, when the patriotic spy Jim Prideaux refuses to believe that anyone in the Circus, or secret service, could possibly be a double agent. George Smiley, the agent trying to find the mole, replies: "We've turned enough other members of other outfits: Russians, Poles, Czechs, French. Even the odd Americans. What's so special about the British, all of a sudden?" (le Carre 284). The attitude of Prideaux is representative of the way the British public felt. Le Carre shows, through Smiley, that the British should not be too surprised by the events that have transpired. After this, a rumor surfaced that there was a third agent involved with the two that had fled. Kim Philby, a lifelong British agent, was asked to resign by the Foreign Secretary because of his friendship to Burgess, but was rehired several years later when in was stated there was no evidence linking him to these men. He continued to work undercover for the British as a journalist until 1962, when a defected KGB officer revealed that Philby worked for the Soviets. It was then that he fled to Moscow. He had worked for almost 30 years as a Soviet spy (Denning 118-120). This case became the basis for the novel Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Despite the revelation of this third person spying for the Soviets, there was still rumor of a fourth man. Ten years after the defection of Philby, Sir Anthony Blunt, a distinguished art historian and official art advisor for the queen, revealed himself as a Soviet spy and fled to Moscow. These scandals were highly publicized throughout Britain, causing a great deal of both fascination and horror within the general public (Cobbs, 104). The unmasking of Blunt coincided with the publication and release of Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy in 1974. Most critics, along with much of the general public, were quick to associate the main character, Bill Haydon, with Philby (Cobbs, 104). Le Carre's novel, along with the media hype surrounding the case, shows how historical events associated with a novel can lead to public interest in these novels. Much of the talk revolved around the similarities between Philby and Haydon. A closer look, however, shows that Philby might not have been the only model for Haydon. The other three traitors, Blunt, Burgess, and Maclean, also contributed to le Carre's description of Haydon. Burgess was known for his bisexuality, a characteristic seen in Haydon, where Philby was the only one of the four traitors that was purely heterosexual. Blunt, too, was an art lover, as seen by his position in the British Secret Service, and Haydon shared this same affection for art (Cobbs, 105). The character of Bill Haydon was compared closely to Kim Philby because, in 1968 le Carre wrote an introduction to The Philby Conspiracy by Page, Leitch, and Kinghtley, and this introduction was widely discussed. Le Carre does not like Philby, and the introduction and subsequent interviews prove this. In an interview with James Cameron in 1974, le Carre expresses his feelings about Philby: "I feel Philby was essentially dead wrong all the way through all the time?His consistent objective was to get rid of the values and conditions I hold to be all right; and I don't go along with it" (Aronoff, 46). From these events, we learn that the public has a general interest in what goes on around them, especially when it involves interests of national security. Novels rumored to be based on events that actually happened draw the attention of the media and thus the public. A third category to which Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy belongs is one where a character recurs throughout several novels by the same author. The character of George Smiley is used in eight of le Carre's fifteen novels published through 1999. Smiley plays a major role in six of these, including Call for the Dead, A Murder of Quality, Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, The Honourable Schoolboy, Smiley's People, and The Secret Pilgrim. He is used as a minor character in two other books: The Looking Glass War and The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (Monaghan 123-124). Le Carre uses Smiley to guide the reader through the novel's complex plots. One of Smiley's functions is to "act as a central intellect in whom the reader has so much confidence that when Smiley is becoming analytical and intuitive about things, you more or less leave the reasoning to him" (Monaghan 124). Ian Fleming presents a character that is similar to Smiley, but also different in many ways: James Bond. Much debate about the relationship between these two characters takes place, where each is seen as the trademark character for each author. James Bond appeared in thirteen novels by Fleming (Johnson, Brief Biography). This remarkable character has captured the hearts of many. The reasons behind his popularity stem from the action and intrigue of this character. Bond's adventures are the kind readers can only dream will happen. His actions are always daring, he always gets the girl, and he is always successful in defeating the enemy (Johnson, Critical Essay). He is able to single-handedly defeat his enemies and the enemies of his country. At a time when the country had much anxiety over the possibility of another war, these novels provided a reassurance that the Soviet imperialism could be held in check. Bond embodied the belief that Britain could still be great, even during a time of uncertainty (Lewis 15-16). The similarities between Smiley and Bond stop, however, after noting their appearance in several novels and their work in espionage. Noting the differences between them is what makes the character of Smiley one readers will remember and understand. The novels of le Carre provide a relief from the "unreality and snobbishness of the Bond books, and also give a much more accurate interpretation of the rival Secret Services during the Cold War period" (Atkins 170). Le Carre has never disguised his dislike for Bond. Andy East writes that "le Carre's Secret Service protagonist, George Smiley, signified a contemptuous revolt against Bond" (170). But le Carre denies this. He does, however, state that Bond "was an absolute travesty of reality; it was absurdity and vulgarity. As an example of how different these two characters really were, the following description of Smiley is taken from Call for the Dead: "short, fat and of a quiet disposition, he appeared to spend a lot of money on really bad clothes, which hung about his squat frame like a skin on a shrunken toad" (1). This description of Smiley, among other reasons, has earned him the reputation of the "anti-Bond" (Cobbs 95). Le Carre's novel is one that stands out among spy novels of his time. He has drawn readers to his work form the mysterious life he led while in the British Secret Service. His use of inside information, historical events, and a known character establish Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy as a novel that teaches about best-selling literature as a whole. Aronoff, Myron J. The Spy Novels of John le Carre: Balancing Ethics and Politics. St. Martin's Press, New York. 1999. Atkins, John. The British Spy Novel. John Calder Publishers, New York. 1984. Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: the fiction of John le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia. 1986. Cameron, James. New York Times Magazine. "The Case of the Hot Writer." 8 Sept., 1974. Cobb, John L. Understanding John le Carre. University of South Carolina Press, South Carolina. 1998. Denning, Michael. Cover Stories. Routledge and Kegan Paul, New York. 1987. East, Andy. "CWF 41: le Carre, John". In the Cold War File. Scarecrow, Metuchen, NJ. 1983. Goudar, Ranjit. Database entry on Fatal Cure by Robin Cook. (http://www.engl.virginia.edu:8000/courses/bestsellers/picked.books.cgi) Grisham, John. The Firm. New York: Doubleday, 1991. Johnson, Jill. Database entry on The Man with the Golden Gun by Ian Fleming. (http://www.engl.virginia.edu:8000/courses/bestsellers/picked.books.cgi) Le Carre, John. The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. New York: Coward McCann, Inc. 1964. Le Carre, John. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. Knopf, New York. 1974. Lewis, Peter. John le Carre . Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, New York. 1985. Maloney, Joseph. Database entry on You Only Live Twice by Ian Fleming. (http://www.engl.virginia.edu:8000/courses/bestsellers/picked.books.cgi) Merriman, Lonette. Database entry on The Pelican Brief by John Grisham. (http://www.engl.virginia.edu:8000/courses/bestsellers/picked.books.cgi) Merry, Bruce. Anatomy of the Spy Thriller . Gill and MacMillan Publishing, New York. 1977. Monaghan, David. The Novels of John le Carre. Basil Blackwell, New York. 1985.
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