Hemingway, Ernest: Across the River and into the Trees
(researched by Christopher Hancock)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description
1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)
1. "ACROSS THE RIVER | AND | INTO THE TREES | BY | ERNEST HEMINGWAY | NEW YORK | CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS | 1950. 8 1/4 x 5 1/2. Published September 7, 1950, at $3.00. The first printing consisted of 75,000 copies." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?
2. " Issued in black cloth" SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available
4 Pagination
4. "[i]-[xii] + 1-308, as follows: [i] blank; [ii] BOOKS BY; [iii] half title, [iv] blank; [v] title page as above; [vi] notice of copyright, note of origin, reservation of rights, Scribner's "A," and printer's device; [vii] dedication: To Mary With Love; [viii] blank; [ix] Note (legal disclaimer) ; [x] blank; [xi] half title; [[xii blank; 1-308 text." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?
5. This book is not edited, however, it is introduced by the following: " on p. [1x]: In view of a recent tendency to identify characters in fiction | with real people, it seems proper to state that there are no real | people in this volume; both the characters and their names are | fictious. The names of designations of any military units are | fictitous. There are no living people nor existing military units | presented in this book." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hannamen, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?
6. The book is not illustrated.
7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available
8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)
8. "Issued in black cloth with the author's signature stamped in gold on the front cover. Stamped in gold on the backstrip: [four rules] |ACROSS | THE | RIVER| AND | INTO | THE | TREES | [triple rule] |ERNEST | HEMINGWAY | [four rules] | SCRIBNERS. Top and bottom edges trimmed, fore edges untrimmed." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available
10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)
11 Description of binding(s)
12 Transcription of title page
13 JPEG image of title page, if available
14 Manuscript Holdings
14. Unable to locate Manuscript
15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)
15. " ARIT first appeared serialized in "Cosmopolitan", cxxviii (Feb. 1950-June 1950). Numerous changes, additions, and omissions were made prior to book publication. For example: "Conte Carlo" was changed to "Count Andrea"; the passages regarding "the Honorable Pacciardi," on pp. 39-41, were added; the passages regarding d'Annunzio, on pp. 49-51, were added, the wholeof Ch. xxxvii was added, the deletions were filled in; etc." " The title is taken from the last words of General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, which are quoted on p. 307: "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees." "The English edition was published September 4, 1950, preceding the American edition by three days." "ARIT appeared on the "N.Y. Times Book Review's" Best Seller list from September 24, 1950 to February 11, 1951. During the twenty-one weeks that it appeared, it was in first place for seven weeks, from October 15 to November 26, 1950." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hannaman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History
1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A
Charles Scribner's Sons also issued a second or uniform edition of ARIT in October of 1956, at $4.50. Issued in yellow clo
th and stamped in gold on the front cover, the uniform edition had ornament at either end. The backstrip has the title stamped in gold on a black block, and the author's name and the publisher's name are stamped in black on gold blocks as well. All the
edges are trimmed, and the pagination is identical to Scribner's first edition in September, 1950. SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princetion University Press, 1967.
2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available
3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available
4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?
There was one printing of the first edition by Charles Scribner's Sons on September 7, 1950. The first printing consisted
of 75,000 copies. However, "ARIT first appeared serialized in "Cosmopolitan," cxxviii (Feb. 1950-June 1950)". SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A
Reprint Edition: ""Across the River and into the Trees" published by Garden City Books, New York, in October 1951, at $1.49." Not
e that this edition was half as expensive as Scribner's first edition. A cheaper version was mostl likely printed for a growing reader base. Paperback Edition: ""Across the River and into the Trees" publishedby the Dell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, January 2, 1953, at thirty five cents, as Dell Book No. D 117. Issued in dark blue stiff paper covers printed in red and yellow, with an illustr
ative scene in color, by Griffith Foxley, on the front cover. All edges stained in red." Editions Currently in Print: ""Across the River & into the Trees." Hemingway. 1996. pap. 11.00 (0-684-82553-8) S&S Trade." ""Across the River & into the Trees.' Ernest Hemingway. LC 75-100353. 320p. 1977. 40.00(0-684-15313-0,Scrbnr) Scribner Ref." ""Acro
ss the River & into the Trees." Ernest Hemingway. 308p. 1988. pap. 7.00(0-02-051920-6)Free Pr." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967. SOURCE: Books In Print, The master refrence to titles, authors and publishers, by R.R. Bowker, New Providence, NJ, Published by R.R. Bowker, 1996.
6 Last date in print?
""Across the River & into the Trees." Hemingway. 1996.pap.11.00(0-684-82553-8)S&S Trade. SOURCE: Books In Print, The master refrence to titles, authors and publishers, by R.R. Bowker, New Providence, NJ, Published by R.R. Bowker, 1996.
7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)
""Across the River & into the Trees" sold 104,000 copies." SOURCE: 80 Years of Best Sellers 1895-1975, by Alice Payne Hackett and James Henry Burke, New York - London, R.R. Bowker Company, 1977.
8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)
N/A
9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)
The following advertisements were found in Publisher's Weekly magazine and The New York Times Book Review. Ad #1 Publishers' Weekly, VOL.158, July-Sept. 1950. A rather simplistic advertisement by the publisher Charles Scribner's Sons. The ad contains a list of all the upcoming books for Scribner's fall lineup. ARIT is listed in the fiction section as a book
which has already been published and is currently selling for $3.00. Ad #2 The New York Times Book Review, July to December 1950. On September 10, 1950, just three days after the book had been published, the New York Times Book Review ran a rather detailed advertisement of Hemingway's first novel in ten years. With the na
me Hemingway printed in bold along the top of the paper, the ad portrays a romantic couple on the chanels of Venice. Scribner's Sons also included a brief description of Hemingway's latest work coupled with the price and location of where the book could
be purchased.
10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available
11 Other promotion
Data Unavaliable
12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A
N/A
13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A
French: ""Oeuvres romanesques: Reportages de guerre/ poemes a Mary." Tome II. Paris: Gallimard, 1969." Hungarian: ""A folyon at, a fak koze." Novi Sad: Forum Konyvkiado,{1966}." Spanish: ""Obras Selectas." Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1969." Yugoslav: "Bregovi kao beli slonovi." Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1965." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A
"Previous Publication: ARIT first appeared serialized in "Cosmopolitan," cxxviii (Feb. 1950-June1050). Numerous changes, addition
s, and omissions were made prior to book publication. For example: "Conte Carlo" was changed to "Count Andrea"; the pasages regarding "the Honorable Pacciardi," on pp. 39-41, were added; the pasages regarding d'Annunzio, on pp. 49-51, were added; the who
le of Ch. xxxvii was added; the deletions were filled in; ect." SOURCE: Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, by Audre Hanneman, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1967.
15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A
N/A
Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author
1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)
Being the second of six children, Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois July 21,1899. From his early childhood days, Hemingway's father encouraged him to appreciate the outdoors. Hemingway soon grew
a strong passion for hunting and fishing which would stick with him throughout his life. His acquired appreciation for nature proved to be one of the fundamental keystones throughout his work. Hemingway's love for writing began in high school where he worked on the school newspaper called The Trapeze. Choosing to defer furthur education at the collegiate level, Hemingway went straight to work as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. However
, Hemingways instinct and urge for adventure quickly led him into WWI. After being rejected for enlistment due poor eyesight, Hemingway volunteered to drive ambulances for the Red Cross. Even as an ambulance driver, Hemingway quikly discovered the true ho
rrors of war. A tragic explosion from an enemy shell left many soldiers dead and a young Hemingway with two legs full of shrapnell and lead. After managing to rescue a few soldiers, the wounded Hemingway left the first World War with the Italian Silver Me
dal of Valor. This experience had a profound impact on Hemingway's life as both a person and a writer. In 1921, Hemingway moved to Paris as a foreign reporter for the Toronto Star. This move proved crucial as Hemingway was able to enteract with established writers such as Gertrude Stein and F. Scott Fitzgerald. As a result, in 1926 and at the age of 27
Hemingways' first books THE TORRENTS OF SPRING and THE SUN ALSO RISES were published. With his first wife Hadley Richardson and their only son, Hemingway was quickly making himself well known among the literary scene. Ezra Pound commented on Hemingway b
y saying, "He's an experienced journalist. He writes very good verse and he's the finest prose stylist in the world." In 1927, Hemingway's life was changing. He and his second wife Pauline Pfeiffer moved from Paris to Key West, Florida. Hemingways passion for the outdoors led him to hunting trips in Africa and deep sea fishing of the Florida coast. In the latter part of his career, Hemingway wrote ACROSS THE RIVER AND INTO THE TREES (1956) which takes place in Italy, the country of his first tragic experience. When Hemingway relates adventerous real life experiences, one can find his work spring
ing from the page in its purist form. In 1954, Hemingway was rewarded for his work by receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Assignment 4: Reception History
1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
Unlike many of Hemingway's other works, Across the River and Into the Trees was not as critically acclaimed. Although it was very popular among readers, critics found the book to be one of Hemingway's worst achi
evments. In fact, even the best reviews refer to the book as " a little less than perfect." Even those critics who saw quality in the novel also admit that it is below the Hemingway standard for writing. For Hemingway, the mediocraty of Across the River a
nd Into the Trees has shown what high standards both critics and readers have given Ernest Hemingway as a testament to the greatness of his earlier works. Across the River and Into the Trees was reviewed by: John O'Hara in The N.Y. Times Book Review (Sep
t. 10, 1950), pp.1, 30-31; Elliot Paul in the Providence Sunday Journal (Sept. 10, 1950) VI, 8; Harold C. Gardiner in America, (Sept. 16, 1950), 628, 630; Fanny Butcher in the Chicago Sunday Tribune (Sept. 17, 1950), Magazine of Books, pp. 3, 14; Harvey B
reit in the New Republic, CXXIII (Sept 18, 1950),20-21. A more complete list of reviews can be found in Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography.
Richard H. Rovere's review in Harper's Magazine, CCI (Sept. 1950), 104-106, was one of the commonly criticaly views of the book:
"Ernest Hemingway's Across the River and Into the Trees is a diaappointing novel. Though it has moments of strength and beauty, it also has moments of tawdriness.... It is an increcibly talky book. It is almost garrulous, a strange thing for a Hemingway
novel to be. The reason, I think, is that Hemingway is here using dialogue not as a tool of narrative but simply as a means for the author to unburden himself of opinions." (Pg. 425 -426)
Lewis Gannett of the N.Y. Herald Tribune (Sept. 7, 1950), pg.23 has a similar, yet more subtle approach.
"There are wonderful flashes of the old Hemingway in the book- the tacit understanding between the colonel and his American driver, for instance.... There is the old Hemingway passion for good shooting, and there is the dream-girl who is a dream of all fa
ir women and never more than a dream, like almost all the Hemingway women.... Some of the book is Hemingway at his worst, and the whole does not add up to Hemingway as his best." (Pg. 466)
Elliot Paul's review for the Providence Sunday Journal (Sept. 10, 1950), VI, 8, had one of the few favorable reviews:
"... this magnificent story... the decades of experience Hemingway has gathered goes into his best telling of the familiar, touching, sad story... Hemingway will, no doubt, get the usual disrespectful reception from the boys of English 'A' who have spen
t their years in New York offices and hate those who have seen or felt other things. Thanks to Ernest and nuts to his disparagers." (Pg. 428)
Elliot Paul's review seems to be one of the only positive comments of ARIT. However, Paul doesn't comment on the book so much as he gives disparaging remarks to less favorable critics. The overlall consensus gives one the feeling that Across the River a
nd Into the Trees is a bit below par for a Hemingway work.
2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)
Unlike many of Hemingway's other works, Across the River and Into the Trees was not as critically acclaimed. Although it was very popular among readers, critics found the book to be one of Hemingway's worst achi
evments. In fact, even the best reviews refer to the book as " a little less than perfect." Even those critics who saw quality in the novel also admit that it is below the Hemingway standard for writing. For Hemingway, the mediocraty of Across the River a
nd Into the Trees has shown what high standards both critics and readers have given Ernest Hemingway as a testament to the greatness of his earlier works. Across the River and Into the Trees was reviewed by: John O'Hara in The N.Y. Times Book Review (Sep
t. 10, 1950), pp.1, 30-31; Elliot Paul in the Providence Sunday Journal (Sept. 10, 1950) VI, 8; Harold C. Gardiner in America, (Sept. 16, 1950), 628, 630; Fanny Butcher in the Chicago Sunday Tribune (Sept. 17, 1950), Magazine of Books, pp. 3, 14; Harvey B
reit in the New Republic, CXXIII (Sept 18, 1950),20-21. A more complete list of reviews can be found in Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography.
Richard H. Rovere's review in Harper's Magazine, CCI (Sept. 1950), 104-106, was one of the commonly criticaly views of the book:
"Ernest Hemingway's Across the River and Into the Trees is a diaappointing novel. Though it has moments of strength and beauty, it also has moments of tawdriness.... It is an increcibly talky book. It is almost garrulous, a strange thing for a Hemingway
novel to be. The reason, I think, is that Hemingway is here using dialogue not as a tool of narrative but simply as a means for the author to unburden himself of opinions." (Pg. 425 -426)
Lewis Gannett of the N.Y. Herald Tribune (Sept. 7, 1950), pg.23 has a similar, yet more subtle approach.
"There are wonderful flashes of the old Hemingway in the book- the tacit understanding between the colonel and his American driver, for instance.... There is the old Hemingway passion for good shooting, and there is the dream-girl who is a dream of all fa
ir women and never more than a dream, like almost all the Hemingway women.... Some of the book is Hemingway at his worst, and the whole does not add up to Hemingway as his best." (Pg. 466)
Elliot Paul's review for the Providence Sunday Journal (Sept. 10, 1950), VI, 8, had one of the few favorable reviews:
"... this magnificent story... the decades of experience Hemingway has gathered goes into his best telling of the familiar, touching, sad story... Hemingway will, no doubt, get the usual disrespectful reception from the boys of English 'A' who have spen
t their years in New York offices and hate those who have seen or felt other things. Thanks to Ernest and nuts to his disparagers." (Pg. 428)
Elliot Paul's review seems to be one of the only positive comments of ARIT. However, Paul doesn't comment on the book so much as he gives disparaging remarks to less favorable critics. The overlall consensus gives one the feeling that Across the River a
nd Into the Trees is a bit below par for a Hemingway work.
Assignment 5: Critical Analysis
1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)
Eleven years after writing the critically acclaimed novel For Whom the Bell Tolls and just eleven more preceding his death, Ernest Hemingway, once again, captured reader's attention with his version of two star
crossed lovers in the city of Venice. Hardly Shakespeare, however, one must appreciate his subtle tributes to writers like Blake. "What hand or eye framed that dark-eyed symmetry." Unlike previous works, the tolls on Hemingway's life seem to have spilled
over into his writing. Across the River and Into the Trees found a loyal following of critics, and its early success seemed to ride on the coattails of Hemingway's name. In fact, it is very likely that people were so anxious for his return that a bestse
ller was inevitable. Character development may be lacking and dialogue became apparently weak at times; however, Across the River and Into the Trees popularity dwindled due to the quality of the work, not the quality of the writer. Experiencing World War I seems to have had a great impact on Hemingway's writing. Since the army would not let him enlist due to a poor left eye, Hemingway decided to volunteer for the Red Cross. As a result, Hemingway found himself stationed in Italy;
the country where his first work following the war takes place. However, Hemingway does not directly recreate the war experience. Instead, he uses his main character Richard, the wounded Colonel who has since retired from the army, as a means of briefly d
escribing war from a retrospective point of view. The Colonel's experience appears very much like Hemingway's first hand experience with war. A familiarity that must have changed his earlier notions of war from his pervious book: For Whom the Bell Tolls
. In fact, the Colonel resembles Hemingway in many ways. For Hemingway, the realities of war opened his eyes to a very tragic side of life. As an ambulance driver, Hemingway fortunately survived the explosion from an enemy shell that killed many American
soldiers and left Hemingway with a wounded leg. This tragic exposure with death seems to have left a very strong impression on Hemingway's life. In fact, the explosion seems to have had an impact on more that Hemingway's physical condition. Its effects have transcended into his work in a very strong way. Maybe it was fate, but ironically, many of Ernest Hemingway's main characters all possess de
formities that pose some type of challenge in their lives. Just as Hemingway suffers from a wounded leg, his characters share similar scars and subtle imperfections, which hamper their peace. For example, the Colonel suffers primarily from a lame hand. Ho
wever, many other visible scars carry the burdens of war with the Colonel for the rest of his life. However, I do not think Hemingway wanted us to sympathize with Richard. His lucrative twenty-four hour relationship with the nineteen year-old Reneta does
not allow for many moments of pity. In fact, Hemingway makes their love so strong that passing over the war stories with very little concern becomes apparently easy. He seems to be struggling with a book whose purpose is caught somewhere between a powerf
ul love story and a critical account of the horrors of war. As a result, the book fails to produce a feeling of completion. With this in mind, one may understand how Hemingway's personal life unintentionally becomes apparent in Across the River and Into
the Trees. Throughout the latter part of his life, Ernest Hemingway suffered many bouts with depression. His reckless lifestyle of heavy drinking and risky activities had many hard impacts throughout the years. Florida brought him the deep sea fishing, Spain brought
him the bull, and his hunting trips to Africa led him to the Lion. Everything Hemingway was doing in his life had to be at either great risk or great excess. Divorce, illnesses, and accidents like his plane crash in Africa were slowly catching up on the
aging author. Slowly Hemingway was becoming a very bitter, worn out old man. We see this side of Hemingway very vividly in his portrayal of the Colonel. When the two young soldiers laugh a Richard and Reneta as they pass on a side street in Venice, one ca
n feel a very sympathetic moment with Hemingway. We can't find sympathy with the Colonel because he proceeds in physically abusing both young men. However, Hemingway's anger and personal frustration is never more apparent. It is almost like Hemingway do
es not care if Across the River and Into the Trees is a critical success. Rather, one feels that Hemingway is using his success and respect by taking the opportunity to vent years of frustration and dissatisfaction. He uses the Colonel to personify his tr
agedies. Unfortunately, his sadly apparent overcompensation of a romantic love affair can not completely overshadow the true roots of bitterness. The book is very revealing towards the personal struggles in Hemingway's life. Compared to Hemingway, the Colonel is no different. Just moments after meeting Reneta, the two magically fall in love. Shakespeare made it work, but Hemingway has fallen a bit short. The circumstances are far too great for the dialogue to convince us that
the two are actually in love. Moreover, I am disappointed that Hemingway resorted to constant exchanges of "I love you" as a means of convincing aloof readers. I think this futile relationship is one of the factors that led critics to say, "though it ha
s moments of strength and beauty, it also has moments of tawdriness." Frankly, Ernest Hemingway seems to have lost his focus. As a result, his work Across the River and Into the Trees suffered. Its best seller status seems to have come solely through anticipation of the book that was to follow For Whom the Bell Tolls. Unfo
rtunately, the kindest critical reviews said nothing more than the book is "a little less than perfect." Although a uniform edition of the book was published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1956, ARIT did not surface again until 1977. In fact, ARIT is one
of Hemingway's books, which is much harder to come by. Taking the book strictly for what it is, one can still see the magic of Hemingway's straightforward writing leap from the pages. The book is full of beautiful lines, which are typical of Hemingway's unique depth. His lines momentarily lead us to think
of ourselves in a different light. "We live by accidents of terrain, you know, And terrain is what remains in the dreaming part of your mind." I am unable to define the true meaning of this quote because I'm not supposed to. This is one of the beauties o
f Hemingway's writing. Even if novels like Across the River and Into the Trees do not achieve glorious critical acclaim; Hemingway fans will still enjoy his straightforward style of prose. Hemingway always leaves his readers with memorable moments. He l
eaves lines that we love to relate to romantic ideals and personal experiences. The subtle haunting scars each protagonist consistently fails to transcend are back once again. Like our sympathy with previous characters such as Jake in The Sun Also Rises,
we find ourselves once again caught up in another story of love just shy of perfection. Deep down we know perfection can never be achieved, but we're keen to the chase. In different ways and for different reasons, we all find some meaning in " We are g
overned by what you find in the bottom of dead beer glasses that whores have dunked their cigarettes in." Unfortunately, the one-liners is basically all this book has to offer. Taking place in a twenty-four hour span, the brevity of action seems to parallel the brevity of time in which Hemingway took to complete this novel. He seems to have tragically rushed the story. The reckless abandon which became a major part in his life
led to a shallow relationship between the Colonel and Reneta. A love that leads readers difficulty with which to sympathize. This difficulty arises from the fact that symbolism like the jewels or the picture doesn't hold any deep meaning. They appear to
be props that Hemingway arbitrarily threw in the book solely to complete the puzzle. Fortunately, Hemingway followed Across the River and Into the Trees with his Pulitzer Prize winning achievement: The Old Man and The Sea. He returned to the level of writing one could see in earlier works like The Torrents of Spring and The Sun Also Rise
s. Although it immediately became a best seller, Across the River and Into the Trees was not a story that truly demonstrates the complete style and form we have come to expect from Ernest Hemingway. However, Across the River and Into the Trees reflects th
e difficult times Hemingway experienced throughout the latter years of his life.
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